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Module 1: Work Zone Traffic Control. Overview of Module 1 Underlying principles of work zone traffic control Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Device.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 1: Work Zone Traffic Control. Overview of Module 1 Underlying principles of work zone traffic control Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Device."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 1: Work Zone Traffic Control

2 Overview of Module 1 Underlying principles of work zone traffic control Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Device (MUTCD) –Features of work zone traffic control Hazards associated with work zone traffic control Injury prevention techniques Summary

3 Work Zone Traffic Control Influences drivers’ perception of risk –Provides information on potential hazards –Minimizes aggressive behavior –Assists in navigation Engineering concerns for work zones –Primary focus: Safe and efficient movement of vehicles through work zone –Relatively less emphasis on safety of construction workers

4 Type of Barrier Rigid Barriers –Provide separation between Opposing traffic lanes Traffic lanes and work area –Cause damage to motorists if struck Concrete barrier separating opposing traffic Concrete barrier separating traffic lanes and work area

5 Type of Barrier Flexible barriers (channelizing devices) –Provide nominal protection for workers –Flexible and deformable, do not cause damage if struck Flexible barrier separating traffic lanes and work area Channelizing devices for delineation Concrete barriers to separate work area

6 Passing traffic in close proximity to the on-foot worker with minimal protection from flexible barrier Sample Road Projects and Potential Hazards Vehicles parked within work area Flashing arrow board is not operating

7 Advanced Warning Area Transition Area Activity Area –Work space –Traffic space –Buffer space Termination Area Components of Temporary Traffic Control Zones (Source: MUTCD 2003)

8 Worker Safety Considerations in Work Zone Traffic Control Modifying traffic control strategies to influence drivers’ perception of risk –Leads to more careful and slower driving –Improves safety for the workers Examples: –Providing active warning devices Illuminated arrow boards Reliable advisory speed limit Active message with flashers –Narrower lane widths –Longer and/or wider buffer zones –Rigid barriers to separate workers from travel lanes

9 ‘Positive Guidance’ Approach May be used to improve safety in work zones Combines highway/traffic engineering features with what rational drivers expect Considers: –Various age groups of drivers –Complexity of work zone information handling –Limited capability of humans for detecting, processing, and remembering information

10 MUTCD – Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices Recognized as the national standard Enforcement agencies often adopt it by reference Provides guidance, options and supporting materials –To assist professionals in making decisions regarding the use of traffic control on streets and highways

11 MUTCD- Part 6: Temporary Traffic Control Primary function of temporary traffic control: –“To provide for reasonably safe and efficient movement of road users through or around temporary traffic control zones while reasonably protecting workers, responders to traffic incidents, and equipment”

12 Work zones present constantly changing conditions –Unexpected by the road user –Creates higher degree of vulnerability for workers Temporary Traffic Control

13 Temporary traffic control (TTC) devices include –Signs –Signals –Markings –Other devices Used to regulate, warn, or guide road users Temporary Traffic Control Devices

14 Types of TTC Applications Each TTC zone is different Many variables affect the needs of each zone: –Location of work –Duration of work –Highway type –Geometrics Vertical and horizontal alignment, intersections, interchanges, etc. –Road user volumes Road vehicle mix (buses, trucks, and cars) and road user speeds

15 Work Duration Major factor in determining the number and types of devices used in TTC zones As per the MUTCD, five categories of work duration are defined: –Long-term stationary is work that occupies a location more than 3 days –Intermediate-term stationary is work that occupies a location more than one daylight period up to 3 days, or nighttime work lasting more than 1 hour –Short-term stationary is daytime work that occupies a location for more than 1 hour within a single daylight period –Short duration is work that occupies a location up to 1 hour –Mobile is work that moves intermittently or continuously.

16 Long Term Stationary Work (more than 3 days) Typically utilize a full range of TTC procedures and devices –Project duration far exceeds installation time of TTC –TTC elements may include: Larger channelizing devices, temporary roadways, and temporary traffic barriers Retroreflective and/or illuminated devices

17 Intermediate-Term Stationary Work (up to 3 days, or nighttime work lasting more than 1 hour) May not be practical to use the same procedures or devices for long-term stationary TTC zones –Such as altered pavement markings, temporary traffic barriers, and temporary roadways Increased time to place and remove these devices could significantly lengthen the project, thus increasing exposure time

18 Short-Term Stationary Work (more than 1 hour within a single daylight period) Most maintenance and utility operations are short-term stationary work –Include activities that might involve different treatments –Devices having greater mobility might be necessary Signs mounted on trucks –Appropriately colored or marked vehicles with rotating/strobe lights may be used in place of signs and channelizing devices May be augmented with signs or arrow panels

19 Short Duration Work (up to 1 hour) Often takes longer to set up and remove the TTC zone than to perform the work –Workers face hazards in setting up and taking down the TTC zone –Delays affecting road users are significantly increased when additional devices are installed and removed Simplified control procedures may be warranted for short-duration work –Reduction in the number of devices –Use of high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights on work vehicles

20 Mobile Work Often involve frequent short stops for activities –Such as litter cleanup, pothole patching, or utility operations, and are similar to short-duration operations TTC zones may includes : –Warning signs, high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights on a vehicle, flags, and/or channelizing devices –Flaggers –A shadow vehicle equipped with an arrow panel or a sign following the work vehicle –Appropriately colored and marked vehicles with signs, flags, high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights, truck-mounted attenuators, and arrow panels or portable changeable message signs may follow a train of moving work vehicles

21 Key elements that SHOULD be considered to improve worker safety: –Training –Worker safety apparel –Temporary traffic barriers –Speed reduction measures –Planning of activity area –Planning for worker safety Worker Safety Considerations Worker safety apparel

22 All workers should be trained on: –Working safely adjacent to vehicular traffic –Work zone traffic control techniques –Device Usage Safety devices Traffic control devices –Placement of traffic control devices Relevant OSHA Regulation –29 CFR , Safety Training and Education Worker Safety Consideration - TRAINING

23 Workers near motor vehicle traffic should wear bright, visible clothing Relevant OSHA Regulation –29 CFR , Criteria for Personal Protective Equipment Worker Safety Consideration- WORKER SAFETY APPAREL

24 Barriers shall be placed along the work zone depending on: –Lateral clearance of workers from adjacent traffic –Speed of traffic –Duration and type of operations –Time of day –Volume of traffic Relevant OSHA Regulations –29 CFR (g), Traffic Signs –29 CFR , Signaling –29 CFR , Barricades Worker Safety Consideration - TEMPORARY TRAFFIC BARRIERS Concrete Barriers

25 Speed of passing motorists may be influenced by: –Regulatory speed zoning –Funneling –Use of law enforcement –Lane reduction –Presence of flaggers Worker Safety Consideration – SPEED REDUCTION MEASURES

26 Plan internal work space and activities –Minimize the use of backing maneuvers of construction vehicles –Minimize interactions between on-foot workers, equipment and trucks Minimize worker exposure to risk –Develop internal traffic control plan and operations Refer to “Module 2: Safe Operations and Internal Traffic Control in the Work Space” Worker Safety Consideration – PLANNING THE ACTIVITY AREA

27 Hazard assessment should be conducted based on: –Characteristics of work site –Job classifications required in the work area Must comply with all relevant OSHA regulations –Assess worker risk exposures for each job site and job classification 29 CFR , General Safety and Health Provisions 29 CFR (b) (2) Worker Safety Consideration – PLANNING FOR WORKER SAFETY

28 Shadow Vehicle with Impact Attenuator Road Closure Police enforcement Additional Lighting Special Devices –Rumble strips –Changeable message signs –Hazard identification beacons –Flags –Warning lights –Intrusion warning devices Optional Worker Safety Elements Rumble strips

29 Common for mobile and constantly moving operations Optional Worker Safety Elements - SHADOW VEHICLE Shadow vehicle with rear mounted crash attenuator Should be equipped with: –Appropriate lights –Warning signs –Rear-mounted impact attenuator

30 Crash with a truck without an impact attenuator Crash with a truck with a truck mounted impact attenuator Truck Mounted Attenuator

31 Reduce worker vulnerability to risk of injury Provide more spacious areas to conduct work activities Eliminate threat of intruding vehicles from passing traffic Aid in faster project completion Optional Worker Safety Elements - ROAD CLOSURE Freeway closure for one direction of traffic

32 Police units may be stationed in a work zone to: –Heighten awareness of passing motorists –Improve safety through work zone by enforcing speed limits Optional Worker Safety Elements - USE OF POLICE ENFORCEMENT

33 Additional lighting should be provided at work zones that operate during the night Optional Worker Safety Elements - LIGHTING Nighttime work requires extra caution due to: –Poor night time visibility –Impairment of workers related to fatigue –Impairment of drivers Nighttime work is common in highway/street construction projects

34 Sample Work Zone Traffic Control Layout For a Single Lane Closure as per MUTCD –Pre-construction speed limit is 70 mph Channelizing Devices KEY Sign Location Note: Distance in feet, drawing not to scale

35 Work Zone Traffic Control MUTCD provides minimum requirements Various demanding situations may warrant enhanced safety precautions, such as: –Nighttime work –Inclement weather conditions –Unusual roadway geometry and environment –Combinations of the above Going beyond existing standards/guidelines may be necessary to ensure highest levels of traffic and worker safety

36 Work Zone Traffic Control Hazards and Injury Prevention Techniques

37 Hazards of Work Zone Traffic Control Passing motorist intruding into the work space Hazards related to flagging Nighttime hazards Common Hazards

38 Hazards of Work Zone Traffic Control Conditions unexpected by the moving traffic –Violation of driver expectancy Conditions unexpected by the workers –Aggressive drivers –Unplanned work zone/activity Injuries can occur due to –Motorists’ mistakes –Workers’ mistakes –Deficiencies in the work zone environment Causal Factors

39 Traffic Control –Use additional warning devices –Maintain signs properly –Use Proper lane markings General Preventive Measures Flaggers –Use a flashing slow/stop paddle On-foot workers –Use portable radio communication equipment Law enforcement –Use officers and radar surveillance for traffic speed control

40 Hazard mitigation measures –Use of proper speed reduction methods –Proper design of the wok zone –Provide effective traffic control measures Causes of Hazards –High approach speed –Improper geometry of the lane shift –Improper traffic control –Inadequate information system No physical separation between work space and traffic lane Hazard: Passing Motorists Intruding Into Work Space

41 Exceed minimum standards/guidelines for traffic control –Rumble strips –Lane drop arrows –Lighted raised pavement markers –Radar triggered speed display –Safety warning system –Combinations of the above Hazard: Passing Motorists Intruding Into Work Space Preventive Measures: Truck may intrude into the work zone

42 Sample Work Zone Traffic Control Layout With Additional Safety Features For a Single Lane Closure Truck Mounted Attenuator W21-4 W20-5 R2-5b W4-2R R2-1 REDUCED SPEED XX AHEAD REDUCED SPEED XX AHEAD REDUCED SPEED XX AHEAD XX AHEAD XX SPEED LIMIT XX SPEED LIMIT SPEED LIMIT D D G20-2 D -2 D D D D L XX Your Speed is XX Your Speed is White Pavement Markings Symbol Retroreflective Raised Pavement Markers Increase Buffer Area Radar Triggered Speed Display Temporary Rumble Strips Flashing Arrow Panel

43 Innovative Technologies for Hazard Control Vertical safetycade CB wizard alert system Radar triggered speed display White lane drop arrows Lightguard lighted raised pavement markers Removable orange strips Flashing slow/stop paddle

44 Vertical Safetycade Designed to replace standard channelizing devices Benefits: –Better visibility –More positive guidance –Greater portability –Improved recoverability Collapsible frame Vertical Safetycades

45 CB Wizard Alert System Trailer-mounted system Broadcasts a recorded message to all CB- equipped motorists Notify drivers of downstream work zones Allows truck drivers to lower their speeds in advance of work zone CB Wizard Advanced Warning Unit CB Wizard Unit

46 Radar-Triggered Speed Display Back-lit dynamic speed display Standard speed limit sign Strobe flash (optional) –Strobe will flash when a vehicle exceeds a certain speed Trailer mounted

47 Lane Drop Arrows Alert driver in advance of lane closure Encourage drivers to reduce speed and move to the open lane

48 Lightguard Lighted Raised Pavement Markers Provide greater visibility in work zones Can be: –Flashing lights –Racing lights –Steady-burn lights With Lightguard Lighted Raised Pavement Markers Without Lightguard Lighted Raised Pavement Markers

49 Removable Orange Rumble Strips Alert motorists of a work zone Benefits: –Highly visible –Repeating rumble sound –Vibration of the steering wheel –Easy to install and remove –Reduce approach speed

50 Flashing Slow/Stop Paddle Consists of a standard paddle with a strobe light mounted on its face Increases flagger visibility to passing motorists

51 Hazard: Flagging Operation 20 flaggers die each year from being struck by a motorist Flagging can be hazardous as a result of: –High speed of passing traffic –Aggressive drivers in traffic stream –Insufficient stopping sight distance for motorists –Improper procedures used by flaggers Not wearing personal protective equipment Inattention Use of nonstandard equipment Improper flagging techniques –Hazardous environmental conditions Fog, obstructions, wet pavements Paddle inclined Nonstandard paddle height

52 Wear high visibility clothing –Appropriate for expected weather (rain gear, warm coat, etc.) High visibility hard hat Use a standard SLOW/STOP paddle or flag –Flags are for emergency purposes only Injury Prevention Techniques for Flaggers

53 STAY ALERT, keep focused on your work Stand alone on shoulder in clear view, not in the open traffic lane Plan an escape route for emergencies Stay in communication with the other flaggers Treat motorists with respect Obtain proper training for flaggers, including safety training Injury Prevention Techniques for Flaggers

54 Flaggers must avoid –Standing where the flagger can be hit by a vehicle –Standing in the shade, around a sharp curve –Standing in a group –Standing near equipment –Making unnecessary conversation –Reading or day dreaming –Listening to music or using ear phones –Turning their back to approaching traffic Injury Prevention Techniques for Flaggers

55 Nighttime traffic control is more challenging –Poor visibility for drivers –Poor visibility for workers –Impaired or drowsy drivers –Sleep deprived workers Hazard: Nighttime Traffic Control

56 Use special precautions for nighttime traffic control –Retro-reflective clothing –Flashing lights on body/clothing –Retro-reflective tape on equipment –Good work area lighting Nighttime Traffic Control Injury Prevention

57 Work zone traffic creates serious hazards for motorists and workers Provisions of MUTCD may not be sufficient for preventing injuries/fatalities of on-foot workers Additional injury prevention techniques should be implemented to prevent injuries to on-foot workers Positively guiding traffic through the complex work zone is the key to safety Summary of the Module


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