Presentation on theme: "Energy in the Earth A. Types of Energy 1. Kinetic: the working energy of a moving body 2. Potential: stored energy of a body at rest B. Electromagnetic."— Presentation transcript:
Energy in the Earth A. Types of Energy 1. Kinetic: the working energy of a moving body 2. Potential: stored energy of a body at rest B. Electromagnetic Radiation It is the ultimate source of energy on earth from the sun. EMR travels as a wave in space at the speed of light 3.00 * 10 8 m/sec All objects give off electromagnetic energy 1. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
C. When energy comes into contact with a surface several interactions can result. 1. Reflected: EMR waves are bounced back. 2. Refracted: Energy waves are bent.
3 Scattered: Reflection & Refraction. 4 Transmitted: Energy passes through a material.
5 Absorbed: Energy is taken into a material. 6 Reradiated: Energy is released from a material at a longer wavelength called infrared heat energy.
D. Energy Transfer 1. Radiation: is the transfer of energy across empty space. 2. Conduction: Movement of heat through solids. Involves the collision of molecules. 3. Convection: The movement of heat through liquids & gasses. Heat is moved by convection cells or currents. Driven by density differences
Electromagnetic Energy Transfer in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Infrared energy Reradiated
E. Heat & Temperature 1. Temperature: is a measure of kinetic energy Increase Temp Increase K E 2. All matter is made up of particles that are in a state of continuous, random motion. 3. Heat flows from high to low… Sources – High Heat Sinks – Low Heat
4. The unit of heat energy is called the CALORIE. Specific heat: is the amount energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1° Celsius. 1 calorie is needed to raise the temp of 1g of H 2 O 1˚ Celsius. Law of Conservation of Energy Amount lost by a source = Amount gained by Sink
5. Specific Heat Calculations Specific Heat Equation Is Used for increasing the temperature of a substance (kE) q=mCΔT q= heat m= mass C = Specific Heat ΔT = Change in Temperature
Specific Heat Equation q=mCΔT Problem 1: The temperature of a copper was raised from 20˚C to 100 ˚C Its mass was 30 grams. How many heat calories were used to raise the temperature? Heat Calories = Problem 2: The temperature of a water was raised from 10˚C to 90˚C Its mass was 50 grams. How many heat calories were used to raise the temperature? Heat Calories = Problem 3: The temperature of a ice was raised from -20˚C to -10˚C Its mass was 50 grams. How many heat calories were used to raise the temperature? Heat Calories =
Latent Heat (Hidden Heat) When a substance changes state potential energy is added to the material with out an increase in temperature. F. The Latent Heat of Fusion. A Change from a solid to liquid or back (Melt/Freeze) 1. Ice when heated from 0°C to a melt at 0°C does not show an increase in temperature. 2. Heat is changed to potential energy. Ice molecules store the heat & break the crystalline solid.
Latent Heat Equations Latent Heat of Fusion Equation Used During a Phase Change (pE during freeze or melt) q=mH f Problem 1: The temperature of a ice was raised from 0˚C to 0˚C as a liquid Its mass was 1000 grams. How many heat calories were used to change states? Heat Calories = Problem 2: The temperature of a ice was raised from 0˚C to 0˚C as a liquid Its mass was 69 grams. How many heat calories were used to change states? Heat Calories = q= heat C = Specific Heat m= mass T = Temperature f = fusionV = vaporization
G. Latent Heat Of Vaporization A changing from a liquid to a gas or back. 1. Boiling Water @ 100˚C will continue to gain heat with out an increase in temperature till water molecules break apart into a gas.
When a substance changes a state from Solid to a liquid or liquid to gas It must gain latent heat MELTING / FREEZING When a substance changes a state from Gas to liquid or liquid to a solid It must lose latent heat Evaporization / Condensation
Latent Heat of Vaporization Equation Used During a Phase Change (pE during vaporization or condensation) q=mH V Problem 1: The temperature of a water was raised from 100˚C to 100˚C as a gas Its mass was 1000 grams. How many heat calories were used to change states? Heat Calories = Problem 2: The temperature of a water was raised from 100˚C to 100˚C as a gas Its mass was 69 grams. How many heat calories were used to change states? Heat Calories = q= heat C = Specific Heat m= mass T = Temperature f = fusionV = vaporization Latent Heat Equations
A.The Seasons are Caused By The earth’s tilt on its axis @ 23.5°. The earth’s revolution around the sun.
Winter Solstice North Pole has 24 Hrs Darkness Note @ 23.5°S Tropic of Capricorn The Sun is Directly Over Head Summer Solstice North Pole has 24 Hrs Daylight Note @ 23.5°N Tropic of Cancer The Sun is Directly Over Head Equinoxes: All portions of the earth receive 12 hrs of daylight & darkness. The sun is directly overhead at the equator. Note the sun is never directly overhead in New York!
Insolation: In Coming Solar Radiation A. Insolation is the electromagnetic energy or radiation received on earth from the sun. Intensity of Insolation: B. Is the rate at which the energy is received. As the angle of sun light hitting the earth increases, the intensity of heat absorbed increases.
1. Visible sun light is the most intense energy received on earth that reaches the ground. o Energy can be ABSORBED or taken into a material and warmed; then released or re- radiate back into the environment as heat. o Heat Energy is radiated at a longer wavelength called INRARED. o X-Rays & are absorbed by magnetic field of the earth o UV Ray’s are absorbed in the ozone layer.
2. Global Warming is the average increase in the earth's temperature. a. Normally energy gained during the long summer hours is lost in the short winter hours. Resulting in a radiative balance and the earth remains at a constant average temperature.
3. Greenhouse Effect is a rise in the earths average temperature caused by over heating of trapped sunlight. Incoming short wave radiation from the sun is absorbed by greenhouse gasses and converted to heat energy. - CO 2 Carbon Dioxide - CH 4 Methane - N 2 0 Nitrous Oxides - H 2 0 Water Vapor The absorbed radiation is changed to Infrared heat energy at a longer wave length which becomes trapped and the temperature rises.
4. The earth is currently experiencing a increase in its over all average temperature; Which in turn causes changes in climate. A warmer Earth may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, & humans.
C. Factors that Determine The Angle of Insolation 1. 1. Shape of the Earth and Latitude The angle of insolation changes with a curved surface @ different latitudes. At the poles The angle of insolation is low….. More light is reflected making it cold. At the Equator The angle is greater More light is absorbed making it hot.
2. Season of the Year and Latitude a. The angle of insolation at a specific latitude changes with each season. b. Note the Maximum and Minimum Angles of Insolation from June to December in the diagram.
Direct ray’s strike the earth perpendicular at a 90° angle ~ Only occurs between 23.5°N and 23.5°S through out year. ~ The sun is never directly over head in New York.
1. What happens to the amount of sun light from June to December ? 2. What happens to the Altitude of the Sun from June to December? 3. What happens to the temperature of the location from June to Dec.? 4. What will happen to the length of the persons shadow from June to December?
3. Time of Day Angle of Insolation & Intensity Change through out the day. Low @ sunrise and sunset so it is cool Low @ sunrise and sunset so it is cool High @ solar noon so it is hot High @ solar noon so it is hot
D. Duration of Insolation The number of hours of daylight received by an area. 1. Atmospheric temperature depends upon the intensity & duration of sunlight. a. Daily surface temperatures and insolation Maximum Daily Temp 2-3 pm Minimum Daily Temp Before Sunrise Temperature lag created by surface absorption of heat and subsequent re-radiation of energy at a later time. Gaining Energy Losing Energy
b. Yearly surface temperatures Maximum Duration - June 21 st (15 +/- hours) Gaining Energy Maximum Duration - June 21 st (15 +/- hours) Gaining Energy Minimum Duration - December 21 st (9+/- hours) Losing Energy Minimum Duration - December 21 st (9+/- hours) Losing Energy Temperature lag created by surface absorption of heat and subsequent re-radiation of heat at a later time. Temperature lag created by surface absorption of heat and subsequent re-radiation of heat at a later time.
c. Yearly energy budgets for different seasons & latitudes In the Northern Hemisphere In the Northern Hemisphere Maximum Insolation - June 21st. Surplus Maximum Insolation - June 21st. Surplus Minimum Insolation - December 21st. Deficit Minimum Insolation - December 21st. Deficit
Summery Factors Effecting Insolation The shape of the Earth Latitude Season or Time of Year Time of Day