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Hearing Disabilities.

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Presentation on theme: "Hearing Disabilities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hearing Disabilities

2 Learners Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
Overview- Isolation can accompany a hearing loss Controversy concerning whether children should be educated to communicate orally or through manual sign language Some do become fluent enough in spoken English to function in mainstream society Many members of the Deaf community consider themselves part of a cultural minority rather than disabled

3 Definition and Classification
Decibels- units of relative loudness of sounds Congenitally deaf- deafness that is present at birth; can be caused by genetic factors Adventitiously deaf- deafness that occurs through illness or accident in an individual who was born with normal hearing Prelingual deafness- deafness that occurs before the development of spoken language Postlingual deafness- deafness occurring after the development of speech and language

4 Degrees of Hearing loss
Mild db. Moderate db. Severe db Profound- 90 and above

5 Prevalence Differences in definition, populations studied, and accuracy of testing contribute to varying figures U.S. Dept. of Education estimate that about .14 percent of the population from 6-17 years of age is identified as deaf or hard of hearing

6 Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear
The Outer Ear Tympanic membrane (eardrum)- Anatomical boundary between the outer and middle ears; the sound gathered in the outer ear vibrates here Auricle- The visible part of the ear; cartilage; collects sounds

7 The Middle Ear Ossicles- three tiny bones (malleus, incus, and stapes) that make a transfer of sound waves from the eardrum to the oval window Mallues- hammer-shaped bone Incus- anvil-shaped bone Stapes- stirrup Oval Window- The link between the middle and inner ears

8 The Inner Ear Vestibular mechanism- located in the upper portion of the inner ears; responsible for sense of balance Cochlea- snail-shaped organ that lies below the vestibular mechanism, converts the sounds into electric signals that are transmitted to the brain

9 Diagram of the ear

10 Measurement of Hearing Ability
Screening Tests Otoacoustic emissions- low-intensity sounds produced by the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation; used to screen hearing problems in infants and very young kids Pure-Tone Audiometry- a test where tones of various intensities and frequencies are presented to determine a person’s hearing loss Speech Audiometry- technique that tests a person’s detection and understanding of speech

11 Tests for Young and Hard to Test Children
Speech reception threshold (SRT)- the decibel level at which a person can understand speech Play audiometry- use of a game-like format to test hearing of young and hard to test children. Tympanometry- a method of measuring the middle ear’s response to pressure and sounds

12 Causes Conductive- transfer of sound in outer or middle ear
Sensorineural- inner ear Mixed Hearing Loss- combination of both Hearing Loss and the Outer Ear External otitis-swimmer’s ear (infection) Hearing Loss and the Middle Ear Otitis media Hearing Loss and the Inner Ear Congenital cytomegalovirus

13 Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
English Language and Speech Development- English vs, ASL Intellectual Ability-difficulty in testing Academic Achievement-deficits Social Adjustment- based on communication

14 Educational Considerations
Oral Approach: Auditory-Verbal Approach and Speechreading Total Communication The Bicultural-Bilingual Approach Service Delivery Models Technological Advances

15 Early Intervention Critical-language development-oral vs. manual
Children with deaf parents develop language (ASL) faster

16 Transition to Adulthood
Postsecondary Education Gallaudet University Traditional univrsities Family Issues 95% choose deaf spouses 90% of their offspring can hear

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