Presentation on theme: "Understanding Students with Hearing Loss"— Presentation transcript:
1 Understanding Students with Hearing Loss Chapter 14
2 Cochlear Implants What are the issues of controversy? Do you think Mariah, Ricquel, and Shylah should have an implant?
3 DefinitionDeaf = hearing loss of 70 to 90 decibels or greater and cannot use hearing even with amplificationHard of hearing = hearing loss in the 20 to 70 dB range and benefits from amplification
4 Prevalence(2003) 70,349 students ages 6-217,474 preschool ages 3-5
5 Hearing Process Audition = hearing process Vibration = interpreting patterns in the movement of air moleculesSound is described in pitch and frequencyFrequency measured in hertz (Hz)Loudness measured in decibels (dB)
6 Outer Ear Auricle, or pinna, and ear canal Purpose to collect the sound wavesFunnel sound waves to the tympanic membrane (eardrum)Vibrating air hits the eardrum which causes vibration
7 Middle EarConsists of 3 little bones known as the ossicular chain= malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup)Vibration of the eardrum causes the bones to vibrate and transmit sound through the middle earEustachian tube also in middle ear equalizes air pressure when you yawn and swallow
8 Inner Ear Cochlea Vestibular mechanism Snail-shaped bony structure - multiple rows of delicate hair cells connected to auditory nerveVestibular mechanismSemicircular canals that control balance
9 Characteristics IQ range same as general population Mild to severe language delaysReceptive speech impairments
10 Communication Options Oral/aural communicationAmplification or cochlear implantEmphasis on amplified sound to develop languageManual communicationSign languageFinger spellingTotal or simultaneous communicationCombines both sign and spoken communication
11 Challenges Academic Achievement Social and emotional development Challenges with reading and writingSocial and emotional developmentParent -child interactionsPeers and teachers - self conceptSocial cuesSense of isolation
12 Causes Congenital - present at birth Acquired Trauma Disease Exposure to excessive noise
13 Hereditary 1 in 2,000 children Result of inherited autosomal recessive gene70 documented inherited syndromes associated with deafness
15 PostnatalBacterial meningitisAcute otitis media (ear infections)
16 Postlingual Causes Blow to the skull causing trauma to the cochlea Excessive noise - firecrackers and air gunsExposure to loud noise over time - rock concerts and headphonesNoise levels of 100 to 110dBSustained 90dB levels damaging
17 Hearing Tests Evoked otoacoustic emissions: EOAE Screening auditory brain stem responseAudimetry - ABRBehavioral audiological evaluations - older childrenEOAE - tests how well the cochlea is functioning, ear canal is sealed with a plastic probe, and clicks or tones of various frequencies are introduced into the ear canal, a computer records responses that are evoked from the cochleaSABR - assess the cochlea and the auditory neural pathway, EEG sensors are placed in various places on the baby’s scalp, external or inserted earphone is used, tones or clicks are presented separately to each ear stimulating neural activity along the pathABR - generates waveforms composed of three distinct waves; the absence of waveform at a given intensity suggests a hearing lossBehavioral audiological evaluations- child responds if they hear a given sound, recorded on an audiogram - a picture of what was heard
18 An audiogram is a picture of your hearing An audiogram is a picture of your hearing. The results of your hearing test are recorded on an audiogram. The audiogram to the right demonstrates different sounds and where they would be represented on an audiogram. The yellow banana shaped figure represents all the sounds that make up the human voice when speaking at normal conversational levels.
19 The horizontal lines represent loudness or intensity The horizontal lines represent loudness or intensity. The 0 decibel (dB) line near the top of the audiogram represents an extremely soft sound. Each horizontal line below represents a louder sound. Moving from the top to the bottom would be consistent with hitting the piano key harder or turning up the volume control on your stereo.
20 The softest sound you are able to hear at each pitch is recorded on the audiogram. The softest sound you are able to hear is called your threshold. Thresholds of 0-25 dB are considered normal (for adults). The audiogram on the right demonstrates the different degrees of hearing loss.
21 Types of Hearing LossConductive - air-conduction thresholds show loss but bone-conduction are normalSensorineural - no blockage in middle or outer ear - loss is caused by sensitivity in cochlear or auditory nerveMixed - both air-conduction/bone-conduction and sensitivity
22 IDEA Services Interpreting services Tutoring General classroom assistanceEducational planningSign language instruction
23 Supplemental Aids Sound-field amplification system Loop systems Assistive technologyclosed captionedC-print: real-time translations of the spoken wordLoop systems - closed-circuit wiring that sends FM signals from an audio system directly to an electronic coil in the student’s hearing aid and the receiver picks up the signal - need residual hearing for this