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Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Promoting Deeper Levels of Phonological Awareness Through Small-Group, Interactive, and Targeted Instruction.

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Presentation on theme: "Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Promoting Deeper Levels of Phonological Awareness Through Small-Group, Interactive, and Targeted Instruction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Promoting Deeper Levels of Phonological Awareness Through Small-Group, Interactive, and Targeted Instruction

2 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Goals of This Session This session will explore: The components of phonological awareness The need for small-group instruction that targets the specific phonological needs of children Ways to Apply Bloom’s Taxonomy in the teaching of phonological awareness Instructional strategies that deepen student sensitivity to the sounds of our language

3 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Children have a natural propensity for language and word play Ehri, 1987

4 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University However, children differ in their awareness of sounds in language and the rate in which they develop such awareness

5 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University What is Phonological Awareness? Definitions: The ability to detect or manipulate the sound structure of oral language “…is a sensitivity to the segmental nature of speech, an explicit understanding that spoken language comprises discrete units ranging from words and syllables to smaller intrasyllabic units of onsets, rimes, and phonemes (Troia, G.A. (2004), p.1

6 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Why Phonological Awareness? Research Findings Studies have shown that children who are better at detecting syllables, rhymes, or phonemes are quicker to learn to read (i.e., decode words) and this relation is present even after variability in reading skills due to intelligence, receptive vocabulary, memory skills, and social class are partialed out” ( e.g., Bryan, MacLean, Bradley, & Crossland, 1990; MacLean et al, 1987; Wagner, Torgessen, & Rashotte, 1994)

7 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Why Phonological Awareness? Research Findings The relationship between phonological awareness and learning to read is reciprocal. That is, phonological sensitivity is critical to learning to read, and learning to read increases phonological sensitivity (e.g., Perfetti, Beck, Bell, & Hughes, 1987; Wagner et, al, 1994)” Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998, p.852 Children who begin their reading instruction with deeper levels of phonological awareness have a powerful bootstrapping mechanism to progress in reading Stanovich, K., E., 1992

8 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University The Discovery of Sounds in our Language Generally, children are able to detect larger units of sounds (e.g., words in sentences, rhymes) before they detect smaller units (individual sounds) This finding has great implications for the sequence of our instruction and the expectations we set for our students

9 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Components of Phonological Awareness Phonological Awareness Phonemic Awareness Words in Sentences RhymesSyllablesOnset-rimePhonemes

10 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Components of Phonological Awareness Words in Sentences (Concept of Word) The knowledge that sentences consists of words that can be manipulated (Clapping words in a sentence) Initially, students may focus on the syllables in the sentence, not the word

11 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Components of Phonological Awareness Rhymes The ability to identify words that have the same final sound segment e.g., Cat and Hat rhyme

12 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Components of Phonological Awareness Syllables The ability to hear parts or segments of phonemes that comprise the rhythm Most kindergarteners have some sense of “syllableness” even if they do not know what a syllable is

13 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Components of Phonological Awareness Onset and Rimes The ability to segment a one-syllable word into beginning sound and rhyming unit e.g., Bat can be divided into /b/ and /at/

14 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Components of Phonological Awareness Phonemes The ability to divide syllables into the smallest unit of sound e.g. Fog can be divided into three phonemes /f/, /o/, and /g/

15 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Phonological Awareness and Small- Group Instruction Since students fall at various levels along the developmental progression of phonological awareness, teachers should address this important skill during small- group instruction Small groups will allow teachers to target instruction and closely monitor student development

16 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Identifying Small Groups Assessment-Based Decision Making Teachers can determine the small groups by relying upon assessment data Through the use of progress monitoring, teachers will be able to create flexible small groups that change as students develop

17 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Analyzing Assessment Data The assessment needs to focus on the student’s ability to identify and play with parts of words in the following ways: –Segmenting –Blending –Deleting –Substituting

18 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Analyzing Assessment Data You may find that your students fall into very clear and distinct instructional groups: –Group 1: Rhymes and Syllables –Group 2: Onset and Rime (Beginning Sounds) –Group 3: Phonemes Other times, student scores may indicate that they are all working on the same component of phonological awareness—perhaps at different levels

19 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Applying the Principles of Bloom’s Taxonomy (Revised) Deepening student phonological knowledge at each developmental level requires that teachers create learning experiences that provide many opportunities to build upon and expand student knowledge Bloom’s Taxonomy (Revised) serves as a wonderful framework for teachers to use as it reminds teachers of the various levels of student understanding

20 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Bloom’s Cognitive Process Dimension Remember—Retrieving relevant knowledge from long-term memory [ex. Students identify rhyming words in a poem] Understand—Determining the meaning of instructional messages, including oral, written, and graphic communication [ex. Students sort words into two categories based on rhyming words] Apply—Carrying out or using procedures in a given situation [ex. Students generate new rhyming words]

21 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Bloom’s Cognitive Process Dimension Analyze—Understanding how the parts relate to one another and to the overall structure purpose [Students identify the shared sound unit (rime) within several rhyming words] Evaluate—Making judgments [Students check the categories in which they sorted rhyming words] Create—Putting elements together to form a coherent whole or make an original product [Students create a a display of objects in the classroom that rhyme]

22 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Analyzing Four Common Phonological Awareness Activities Take a moment to read the lessons in handout 3. Let’s identify the cognitive dimensions that are being addressed How could we expand these lessons to address other cognitive dimensions?

23 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Moving Beyond Remember, Understand, and Apply More Effective Small-Group Instruction As you are working within small groups, be sure that your lessons are brief, interactive, and are advancing students through the Cognitive Process Dimensions

24 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Instructional Activities In the next section, I will demonstrate various instructional activities for teaching phonological awareness while targeting the cognitive dimensions of Bloom’s Taxonomy Most importantly, I will demonstrate how to make these activities interactive and fun for children

25 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Setting the Stage for Phonological Awareness Important Materials/Resources for Effective Instruction Poems, songs, nursery rhymes Clapping and rhythmic chants Movement and rhyme games Pattern, rhythm and repetitive texts Alliteration texts Picture/word cards Objects/toys in the classroom Student Names

26 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Small-Group Lesson Plan Format MondayTuesdayWed.Thurs.Fri. Review/Remember Introduce/ Understand Reading and writing Apply Activity Game/Project/ Extension Activity Analyze/Evaluate/or Create

27 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Demonstration Lessons

28 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University For Students Who Need More Support Use concrete instructional techniques Slow down the presentation of the word or words Use mirrors Many repetitions in the same context Authentic learning environments

29 Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Contact Information Terri Purcell, Ph.D. Reading Education Cleveland State University


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