Presentation on theme: "Risk Factors for Smoking Cessation Relapse After Pregnancy Elizabeth Clark, MD, MPH (1,2) Kenneth D. Rosenberg, MD, MPH (1, 3) (1) Oregon Health & Science."— Presentation transcript:
Risk Factors for Smoking Cessation Relapse After Pregnancy Elizabeth Clark, MD, MPH (1,2) Kenneth D. Rosenberg, MD, MPH (1, 3) (1) Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (2) University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa (3) Oregon DHS Office of Family Health, Portland, Oregon 9 th Annual Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology Workshop, Tempe, AZ December 10, 2003
Introduction Maternal smoking associations: Effects during Pregnancy Low Birth Weight (growth retardation) Effects in Infancy Increased SIDS Effects in Childhood and Adolescence Increased hyperactivity (ADHD) Increased alcohol & drug use as adolescent Decreased child IQ Increased asthma
Methods Oregon PRAMS (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System), 1998-99 Stratified random sample of Oregon women a few months after live birth (from birth certificates) Response Rate = 64.0% (1867/2917) Questions: Smoking Before Pregnancy Smoking During Pregnancy (in the third trimester) Smoking After Pregnancy (at the time of the PRAMS survey)* * Days after birth: mean=106.5; Standard deviation=27.2
Results 1867 women in sample 454 women (24.3%) smoked before pregnancy 229 (50.4% of the smokers) successfully quit during pregnancy Among the 229 who successfully quit during pregnancy 91 (39.7%) of the quitters relapsed after delivery 135 (59.0%) of the quitters did not smoke after pregnancy (stayed quit)
Results: Risk Factors for Relapse Among the women who quit smoking during pregnancy, risk factors for relapse (Odds Ratio, 95% CI): Bivariate Multivariate Living with other smokers 3.32 (1.38, 8.00) 3.13 (1.28, 7.65) Multiparous 2.60 (1.10, 6.14) 2.28 (0.94, 5.58) Medicaid (at L&D) 2.24 (0.96, 5.23) Unmarried 1.83 (0.78, 4.32) Black race 1.55 (0.63, 3.80) Teen mother (<20 yrs) 0.86 (0.31, 2.40)
Conclusions Half of smoking women successfully quit smoking during pregnancy 60% of women who quit smoking during pregnancy were still quit at time of survey Women who lived with other smokers were less likely to stay quit
Discussion We found that living with other smokers is the strongest risk factor for relapse. Programs to decrease smoking among pregnant women should include partners Women are more likely to stay quit for their first baby than for subsequent babies.
Discussion Pregnant women who are internally motivated to quit (for themselves) are more likely to stay quit postpartum than women who are externally motivated to quit (for their baby)* *Stotts AL et al. Pregnancy smoking cessation: a case of mistaken identity. Addictive Behaviors. 1996;21;459-471.
Discussion Limitations Mean time from delivery to survey is less than 4 months (106.5 days) so stay-quit rate is higher than 6-month stay-quit rates (e.g., Mullen PD, et al. Maintenance of non-smoking postpartum by women who stopped smoking during pregnancy. Am J Public Health 1990;80:992-994). Recall bias Strengths Survey method better than birth certificate or face-to- face interview
Public Health Implications More federal support for programs that help pregnant women quit and stay quit. Women who live with other smokers need extra social support to quit and stay quit. Replicate 5As Screening for prenatal care providers: Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange [www.smokefreefamilies.org]. Use of 5As can cause lower relapse rates at one year postpartum.* * Secker-Walker RH, et al. Amer J Prev Med;1998:25-31
Acknowledgments Alfredo P. Sandoval Lesa Dixon-Gray