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Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources Second Edition Chapter 3 State and Empire in Eurasia/North Africa (500 B.C.E.–500 C.E.) Copyright.

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Presentation on theme: "Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources Second Edition Chapter 3 State and Empire in Eurasia/North Africa (500 B.C.E.–500 C.E.) Copyright."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources Second Edition Chapter 3 State and Empire in Eurasia/North Africa (500 B.C.E.–500 C.E.) Copyright © 2013 by Bedford/St. Martin’s Robert W. Strayer

2 I. Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks A. The Persian Empire 1. King of Kings: Cyrus & Darius a. Absolute authority over subjects/ centralized state b. Lavish lifestyles 2. Multiculturalism a. System of satraps to rule large area b. Respected diverse cultures and religions of people in conquered areas 3. Infrastructure a. Royal road b. Equal taxation c. Bureaucracy

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4 I. Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks B. The Greeks 1. Hellenes a. Common identity, language, religion, rituals b. 776 BCE began Olympic Games as celebration 2. City-states a. Rivalry among various city-states 1. Sparta vs. Athens - Militaristic vs. Democracy 3. Expansion by migration a. Came in waves around Mediterranean and Black Sea b. Spread Greek culture, language, architecture 4. Citizens and hoplites a. New political ideas – individual as a participant of the larger state AKA - CITIZEN b. Hoplites – men who could afford armor served in military: led to challenge of elites for rights

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6 I. Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks C. Collision: The Greco-Persian Wars 1. Ionia a. Greek city-states under Persian rule revolted with help from Athens b. Persia MAD – sought revenge on Greece 2. Athens: Victorious, democratic, and imperial a. 2 major battles with Persia – WON! b. Resulted in offers of citizenship to lower classes to show the success of their political system 3. The Peloponnesian War, 431–404 B.C.E. a. Athens vs. Sparta: civil war b. Athens lost, Greece vulnerable for Macedonian invasion

7 I. Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks D. Collision: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era 1. Philip II and Alexander a. Father/son duo of Macedonia b. Alexander invaded Persian empire and won, expanded kingdom as far out as Afghanistan and India 2. Spread of Greek culture 3. Alexandria and Bactria a. Hellenization of kingdom – fusion of Greek and eastern cultures, seen in architecture, law making, art, and language

8 Alexander the Great

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10 II. Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese A. Rome: From City-State to Empire 1. An upstart republic a. Weak and poor – originally b. Through warfare, conquered and incorporated neighboring territories c. Patricians: wealthy citizens d. Plebeians: poorer classes 2. An expansionist warrior society a. Army enjoyed special privileged status b. Brought defeated people into Rome as slaves c. Used expansion for defensive purposes of the large empire

11 II. Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese A. Rome: From City-State to Empire 3. Changing gender norms a. Males as head of household: pater familias b. Elite women had less restricted life 4. Civil war and death of the republic a. Expansion led to gaps in wealth b. More slaves c. Farmers could not compete, became more impoverished or joined army d. Civil war led to various emperors, which ruled with absolute power while trying to preserve the symbols of the republic – Senate, citizenship, voting, taxation

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14 II. Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese B. China: From Warring States to Empire 1. Qin Shihuangdi’s brutal quest for order a. Not creating new (ROME), but returning to the past b. Belief that one state would establish order c. State of Qin established 1. Strong bureaucracy and army 2. First Emperor d. Legalist rule: Enforced the authority of the state\ e. Standardized: weights, measures, cart axels, money, language, writing f. Built a large portion of the GREAT WALL

15 The Evolution of Chinese Writing PictographsSemantic-Phonetics

16 The Great Wall with Towers

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19 The Dynastic Cycle A new dynasty comes to power. Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged. Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc.) Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected. Govt. increases spending; corruption. Droughts, floods, famines occur. Poor lose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords. Rebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor. Emperor is defeated !! The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient. Start here 

20 II. Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese B. China: From Warring States to Empire 2. The moralistic and moderate Han a. Qin dynasty was short due to harsh tactics b. Han established and used Qin infrastructure c. Adopted Confucian morals and ideology d. Longer lasting and expanded territory greatly

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23 II. Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese C. Consolidating the Roman and Chinese Empires 1. Supernatural sanctions a. Rome: Emperors were revered as gods b. Mandate of Heaven 2. Absorbing foreign religion a. Rome: Christianity, Persian, Egyptian faiths accepted b. China: Buddhism from India c. Faiths in both empires spread through transportation systems 3. Paths to assimilation a. Rome: minority in multiethnic empire, granted citizenship to all free peoples in empire b. China: Large area that was already ethnically Chinese, easy to assimilate conquered peoples

24 II. Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese C. Consolidating the Roman and Chinese Empires 4. The use of language a. Rome: Latin spread and lead to develop of other languages b. China: Character based and pronunciation differs, but reading the characters was the same throughout empire 5. Bureaucracy versus aristocracy a. Rome: Relied on aristocracy and military to rule and create laws – wanted good laws b. China: Bureaucracy based on political and philosophical principles emphasizing morality of the governing classes – wanted good men

25 II. Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese D. The Collapse of Empires 1. Over-extension a. The got too big, unable to control outlying areas 2. Rivalries amongst elites 3. Pressures from nomadic people a. Rome: Pressure from Germanic peoples and Huns b. China: Pressure from people of the steppes to the North 4. Revival? a. Both empires sought to recreate, only successful in China with new dynasties arising (Sui, Tang, Song)

26 III. Intermittent Empire: The Case of India 1. The Aryan Controversy 2. Political fragmentation and cultural diversity, but a distinctive religious tradition a. Many small states/kingdoms b. Hinduism 3.Mauryan Empire ( B.C.E.) a. First empire 4.Ashoka (r B.C.E.) a. Most famous ruler b. Converted to Buddhism, moralistic ruler c. Commissioned many pillars and rock edicts

27 Asoka’s Empire

28 III. Intermittent Empire: The Case of India 5.Gupta Empire ( C.E.) a. Flourishing of art, architecture, literature, commerce, and science 6.Great civilizational achievements without a central state a. Without a significant empire, developed long-distance trade network, spiritual movements, work in math and astronomy

29 Gupta Empire: 320 CE – 647 CE

30 Medicine Literature Mathematics Astronomy Printed medicinal guides 1000 diseases classified Plastic Surgery C-sections performed Inoculations 500 healing plants identified Decimal System Concept of Zero PI = Kalidasa Solar Calendar The earth is round Gupta India Gupta Achievements

31 Extensive Trade: 4c Extensive Trade: 4c spices spices gold & ivory rice & wheat horses cotton goods silks

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