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Student Experiences of School Reform & Social Change Progressive era reformers (such as John Dewey and others, 1890s-1930s) called for bold changes in.

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Presentation on theme: "Student Experiences of School Reform & Social Change Progressive era reformers (such as John Dewey and others, 1890s-1930s) called for bold changes in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Student Experiences of School Reform & Social Change Progressive era reformers (such as John Dewey and others, 1890s-1930s) called for bold changes in teaching and learning. How did various groups of students and teachers actually experience Progressive era school reform? Did educational policy influence classroom practice -- or not?

2 Larry Cuban, How Teachers Taught: Constancy and Change in American Classrooms, Research Question: Did Progressive-era “policy talk” influence classroom instructional practice?

3 Larry Cuban, How Teachers Taught Source materials to address the research question: –Photographs of Progressive-era classrooms –Textbooks used in classrooms –Student recollections from this period, in diaries or memoirs –Teacher self-reports written during this period –Reports written by classroom visitors –Descriptions of classroom architecture (building plans and classroom layouts, placement of desks, etc.)

4 Larry Cuban, How Teachers Taught Definitions for analyzing photographs: Teacher-centered instruction: –Teacher talk dominates student talk –Frequent use of whole-group instruction –Use of class time determined by teacher –Classroom organization usually rows facing board Student-centered instruction: –Student talk on learning tasks equal to teacher talk –Individual or small/med group instruction, rather than whole –Students help to choose and organize content –Teacher permits student to partly choose rules of behavior –Varied instructional materials (centers) available in classroom

5 Using Cuban ’ s question and definitions, analyze this photo: Source: Library of Congress

6 Using Cuban ’ s question and definitions, analyze this photo:

7 Cuban ’ s thesis: Some student-centered instructional practice appeared in elementary schools between , but only in one-fourth of the school districts that systematically tried to implement it; unevenly throughout the day. These small changes were enough to allow policy rhetoric to flourish, though its real impact was quite limited.

8 In Cuban’s other book, Teachers and Machines, he argues that technological innovation (radio, television, computers) has not altered traditions of teacher-centered classroom instructional practice Los Angeles

9 Students’ Views from Classrooms How did American Indian students experience Progressive-era schools?

10 From Carlisle Indian Industrial School (PA),

11 Student body assembled on the Carlisle Indian School Grounds, Source Detective Q: Is this website a credible source?

12 Students ’ Views from Classrooms How did Italian immigrant students experience Progressive era US schooling? Source: Leonard Covello autobiography Source Detective Q: How to find a book review of Lassonde, Learning to Forget?

13 Students ’ Views from Classrooms How did Puerto Rican migrants experience mainland US schooling in the post era? Source: –Esmeralda Santiago autobiography

14 Students ’ Views from Classrooms What words would you use to characterize American Indian, Italian American, and Puerto Rican children ’ s experiences of schooling? Assimilation? Integration? Annihilation? Segregation? Americanization?


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