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Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Introduction Anders Plejdrup Houmøller, CEO Houmoller Consulting ApS ► Appendix 1 defines what intra-day trading of electricity means in a large part of Europe. ► Appendix 2 contains a map of 5 of the synchronous grids in Europe – and a map showing the seven DC links between UCTE and Nordel. ► Appendix 3 contains a list of the terms and acronyms used in this presentation. ► Concerning documents referred to in this presentation: At houmollerconsulting.dk, you can download the documents from the sub-page Facts and findings. ► This PowerPoint presentation is animated It’s strongly recommended to run the animation when viewing the presentation. ► On most computers, you can start the animation by pressing F5. Now the presentation moves one step forward, when you press Page Down. It moves one step backward, when you press Page Up. April 12, 20141
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © European intra-day trading ► A capacity database is needed for the future pan-European intra-day trading. ► The database will inform traders and trading platforms on the intra-day capacity between the price zones For example: the database will inform whether it’s possible to trade 10 MWh from Northern Sweden to France. ► The establishment and operation of the database is a monopoly task Just as grid building and grid operation are monopoly tasks. ► However, usage of the database for trading is a commercial task Just as the market players’ usage of the grid is commercial. ► Therefore, we need a separation of the monopoly and the commercial tasks Similar to the separation we have for the grid. April 12, 20142
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Commercial activity: bilateral intra-day trading Intra-day trading platform 1 Intra-day trading platform N Commercial activity: intra-day trading via a platform Separating monopoly tasks and commercial tasks Capacity database The TSOs must establish and operate the capacity database. This is the monopoly task. Blue and red colours indicate commercial tasks. Commercial service providers 3
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © The capacity database ► Inside a synchronous area, you cannot control the flow of energy Therefore, the database cannot choose the routes for the energy flows created by an intra-day trade The AC laws of nature will decide how the energy flows from source to sink. When setting the capacity between two price zones inside a synchronous area, the database must make a (preferably flow-based) estimate ”Flow-based” means the estimate takes into account the complicated flow patterns of a meshed AC grid. ► However, for a DC link the TSOs can set the link’s flow to a given value Hence, for trades between two asynchronous areas the database must choose which DC link(s) to use. April 12, 20144
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © An intra-day trading case The function of the capacity database ► Consider a 10 MWh trade from Northern Sweden (SE1) to France. This is a trade between two asynchronous areas: Nordel and UCTE (please refer to slide no. 15). ► There are seven DC links between Nordel and UCTE. ► Assume there’s 10 MW capacity available on all the seven DC links. In this case: which links should be used for the trade? ► There are 127 different ways of combining the seven links – for example: Use NorNed, Kontek and Greater Belt. Use Skagarrak and Swepol. Etc. ► For each of the 127 combinations, the database must decide how much energy to ship along each of the selected links Hence, there’s an infinite number of ways to use the selected combination, even after having selected one of the 127 combinations of links… 5
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © The function of the capacity database ► For a trade from Northern Sweden (SE1) to France: for each potential usage of the DC links, the database must determine Whether the Nordel grid can cope with the internal Nordel flows generated by this specific usage of the DC links. Whether the UCTE grid can cope with the internal UCTE flows generated by this specific usage of the DC links. ► These kinds of investigations will set the intra-day capacities between all price zones Naturally, the investigations are made in advance Before the players start intra-day trading. Also, after each intra-day trade, an update must be made. ► For trades between two asynchronous grids, the database will often have a choice of how to use the DC links. ► The database’s choice will determine which trades can be carried out subsequently Example for a trade from SE1 to France: the trade will consume capacity at the Polish-German border, if SwePol is used. 6
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © The capacity database has two functions Capacity database and DC flow selection Function 1 Inform on the capacities between price zones Function 2 For trades between asynchronous grids: choose how to use the DC links Concerning function 2: the IT system needs a criterion when selecting among the many possible ways of using DC links connecting asynchronous grids. Choosing the criterion is part of the monopoly task. And it must be done in a transparent way. Public consultation etc. Actually, it’s a database and a DC flow selection module 7
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © The monopoly task and the commercial tasks ► Establishing the database is the complicated part. ► Setting up trading platforms using the database is relatively trivial. ► As the database grants access for bilateral trading and multiple trading platforms: Competition will keep the trading platform fees in check. ► Regulators must set/approve the fees for using the database, as this is a monopoly. 8April 12, 2014
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Spot Market Council User representation Board National representation Pan-European governance Capacity database and DC flow selection ACER and national regulators 9 If there turns out to be a single, monopoly intra-day trading platform, this is the governance for both the trading platform and the database/DC flow selection April 12, 2014
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © April 12, Unbundling
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Unbundling – 1 ► Unfortunately, the spot exchanges become monopolies when market coupling or market splitting is introduced as the day-ahead congestion management system Please refer to the PowerPoint presentation Market coupling makes real competition betw. spot exchanges unfeasible. ► Hence, in order to avoid cross-subsiding, the spot exchanges must unbundle Unbundling means an organisation having a monopoly task cannot have any other business Hence, cross-subsidising is automatically prevented –The regulators can focus on controlling the organisation’s economical efficiency Please refer to the PDF document Unbundling of spot exchanges and associated clearing houses. April 12,
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Unbundling – 2 Terminating cross-subsidizing ► Note: this also means the spot exchanges cannot be involved in intra-day trading As experience shows: this gives heavy cross-subsiding – with the many spot players subsidizing the fewer intra-day players. ► As cases – turn-over for the year 2013 (numbers in TWh): EPEX Spot (Austria, France, Germany, Switzerland) Spot turnover 323 Intra-day turnover 23 Nord Pool Spot Spot turnover (Baltic-Nordic area)349 Intra-day turnover (Baltic-Nordic, Germany)4 APX (Belgium, the Netherlands) Spot turnover64 Intra-day turnover1 As can be seen: the turnover at the intra-day markets is paltry. It cannot finance the intra-day trading platforms Hence the intra-day trading platforms only survive due to heavy cross-subsidizing from the spot trading. 12
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Unbundling – 3 April 12, Terminating the spot market players subsidizing the intra-day trading platforms Adding insult to injury: as a consequence of the cross-subsidizing, small market players are subsidizing big players First and foremost, the intra-day market is important for big players Who face the risk of big, unplanned outages.
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Appendix 1 Time line for trading electrical energy in a large part of Europe 14 Time Day of operation (D) Midnight Day of operation: The day where the electrical energy is produced and consumed. Hour of operation: The hour where the electrical energy is produced and consumed. Long-term trading Day-ahead trading Intra-day trading Trading regulating energy with TSO D - 1 Midnight hour of operation 12 o’clock CET: gate closure time for spot trading
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © 15 SE1 Appendix 2 Five of the synchronous grids in Europe RG Continental Europe (UCTE) RG Baltic RG United Kingdom RG Ireland RG Nordic (Nordel) April 12, 2014
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © April 12, Appendix 2 The 7 DC links between Nordel and UCTE NorNed Norway–the Netherlands NorNed Skagerrak Norway–DK1 Skagerrak Konti-Skan Sweden–DK1 Konti- Skan Great Belt DK2–DK1 Great Belt Baltic Cable Sweden–Germany Baltic Cable SwePol Sweden–Poland SwePol Kontek Kontek DK2–Germany DK1: Western Denmark DK2: Eastern Denmark
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © April 12, Appendix 3 Terminology and acronyms
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Terminology and acronyms – 1 ► AC Alternating current. ► CET Central European Time. ► DC Direct current. ► EPEX Spot See the web page epexspot.com. ► Nord Pool Spot See the web page nordpoolspot.com. ► Price zone A geographical area, within which the players can trade electrical energy without considering grid bottlenecks. ► SE1 Sweden’s northernmost price zone. Please refer to slide no. 15. ► Synchronous grid An electricity grid that operates at a synchronized frequency and is electrically tied together during normal system conditions. In popular terms: in a synchronous grid, the electrons oscillate in lockstep. Two asynchronous grids can only be connected by means of DC links. 18
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Terminology and acronyms – 2 As used in this presentation ► Trading platform A computer system that can be used to place sales offers and purchase bids for electrical energy. The platform can also be used to execute trades. The platform is similar to the electronic trading platforms used for trading shares, bonds and currencies. If a trading platform has access to a capacity database, the platform may include cross-border trading. Currently, each of the exchanges EPEX Spot and Nord Pool Spot operate a trading platform (Elbas is Nord Pool Spot’s platform). However, neither of these platforms carry out pan-European intra- day trading. Also, these platforms are operated by exchanges engaged in spot trading Hence there’s a lack of unbundling, as market coupling has made these spot exchanges monopolies. Please refer to the PowerPoint presentations Market coupling – transparency, type, quality and unbundling and Market coupling makes real competition betw spot exchanges unfeasible. ► TSO Transmission System Operator. 19
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Thank you for your attention! 20 Anders Plejdrup Houmøller Houmoller Consulting ApS Tel Web houmollerconsulting.dk
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