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Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Introduction Anders Plejdrup Houmøller CEO, Houmoller Consulting ApS The concepts capacity, power and energy are explained in appendix 1 Further, using the Nordic area and Western Denmark as cases, appendix 2 illustrates how the TSOs trade regulating energy and regulating capacity with market players In order to maintain the security of supply. Appendix 3 contains a list of the terms and acronyms used in this presentation This PowerPoint presentation is animated Its strongly recommended to run the animation when viewing the presentation. On most computers, you can start the animation by pressing F5. Now the presentation moves one step forward, when you press Page Down. It moves one step backward, when you press Page Up. 1April 9, 2013
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © The Single European Electricity Market For The Single European Electricity Market, this document has two messages: In contrast: the electricity supply business will slide back to planning economy, if the TSOs carry on with buying capacity on medium-term or long-term contracts. For the security of supply, with separation of the TSOs markets for energy and capacity, the green producers become part of the solution Instead of being part of the problem Please refer to slide no )The TSOs must establish separate markets for regulating energy and regulating capacity 2)For capacity, the TSOs must establish short-term capacity markets Thus providing a continuous updated price signal for capacity. 2
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Separation of the TSOs markets for capacity and energy Referring to slide no. 10: the TSOs can ensure maximum competition at their market for regulating energy by separating their markets for energy and capacity. Efficient competition at the TSOs market for regulating energy is vital for the competition at the retail market. Because the prices for imbalances are derived from the TSOs prices for regulating energy. A new retailer (with few customers) will have relatively high imbalances Buying the right amount of energy for every hour is difficult, when you have few customers As predicting a small customer portfolios consumption is relatively more difficult than predicting a big portfolios consumption. Thereby, at the retail market, high prices for imbalances create an high entrance barrier. However, the TSOs can keep the imbalance prices in check by separating their markets for energy and capacity. 3
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Players at the TSOs capacity and energy markets In order to promote innovation and competition, its very important the players are normal, commercial players Retailers, producers, traders, portfolio managers. Every balance responsible player must be allowed to offer services at the TSOs capacity and energy markets. As for the so-called smart grid technologies: The investment in these technologies must be made solely by commercial players, who see a business opportunity An opportunity to use the technologies to offer more services at the TSOs markets for capacity and energy. The investments must not be made by the monopolies (ie, not by TSOs or distribution grid companies). We ensure the grid users will not end up paying for non- viable investments by ensuring smart grid investments are made by commercial players on fully commercial terms The TSOs job is solely to provide the price signal. 4
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Consumers and producers of electrical energy, who have the ability to change production/ consumption Portfolio manager: retailer or other commercial player. Aggregate small players service offers Commercial agreements TSO. Buying regulating capacity. Buying and selling regulating energy Regulating energy: bids and offers Regulating capacity: offers FactoriesOfficesHouse- holds District heating companies Small power producers 5
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Capacity markets in EU – 1 The electricity supply system gets more and more capacity from subsidized producers (eg, wind turbines and solar cells). This drives down the market price of electrical energy as: Many of the subsidized producers receive feed-in tariffs. Hence theyll produce without regard to the market price. For these producers: after their subsidy period has expired, theyll still produce even if the market price is close to zero As their marginal production costs are close to zero. Will this process drive non-subsidized producers out of business? (such as gas or coal fired power stations). In order to maintain the security of supply, the TSOs need capacity Due to the process described above: in order to ensure sufficient capacity, will the TSOs have to buy capacity from otherwise non-subsidized producers on long-term or medium-term contracts? 6
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Capacity markets in EU – 2 Suppose the TSOs increased the purchase of capacity on medium-term or long-term contracts: Now no investor would build a new power station, unless it was subsidized. Therefore, this would send us down the slippery slope Where no new power stations would be built, unless they were subsidized Subsidized due to environmental or security of supply issues. Hence, a vital element of market economy would be lost for the electricity supply business In a market economy, one of the purposes of the price signal is to alert potential investors of scarcity of the commodity. With this element removed, the electricity supply business would slide back to planning economy. The following slides will demonstrate how this can be avoided. 7
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © The right type of capacity markets – 1 The TSOs can buy capacity on short-term contracts Buying capacity day-ahead and month-ahead. Thereby, the TSOs do not pay for investments in power stations Instead, by means of their short-term capacity markets prices, the TSOs provide the market and potential investors with a price signal. This price signal will prompt investors to provide new capacity when its needed. Hence, all we need is a short-term market for capacity providing a continuous updated price signal. 8 April 9, 2013
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © The right type of capacity markets – 2 In order to create trust among potential investors, its imperative the framework for the TSOs markets for energy and capacity is regarded as stable and fair. Building trust and reliable prices at a market is a very time- consuming process. Hence, this work should start immediately And plans for medium-term or long-term capacity markets should be abandoned. Otherwise, it will be unnecessarily expensive to meet EUs goals for renewable energy. Suppose the TSOs carry on buying capacity on medium-term or long-term contracts (perhaps even increasing this activity) In this case, for regulating capacity, the TSOs have signalled they do not believe its possible to create fair short-term markets with reliable prices This would be a costly surrender. And it would block the establishment of viable short- term capacity markets. 9
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Features of a well-designed short-term capacity market As for the minimum amount of capacity players can offer at the TSOs capacity market: The allowed minimum must be very small As experience illustrates: this attracts capacity, which otherwise would not have been put to the market. Players must be allowed to offer only up regulating capacity or only down regulating capacity (ie, asymmetric offers must be allowed) This makes it possible for unconventional players to offer capacity. For example: Smelteries and other types of industry (who can offer up regulating by temporary reducing consumption). District heating (who can offer down regulating by starting to produce hot water by means of electricity). Owners of a UPS (who can offer up regulating). Note: precisely because its a short-term market, all these players (and many more) have the option of offering services at the TSOs markets (ie, enhancement of competition). 10
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Multinational markets needed! For energy and capacity So far, the TSOs markets for regulating energy and regulating capacity have largely been strictly national affairs. If EUs goals for renewables are to be met with reasonable costs, we need to improve this Enhance the competition by establishing a Single European Market for these services. Probably, due to grid bottleneck issues, the Single Market will work this way: For each price zone, the local TSO is the sole counterpart for the players ie, the players cannot themselves offer these services across the borders. However, the TSOs establish an EU-wide pricelist for the services – and trade with the best counterparts To the extend grid bottlenecks do not prevent this. 11
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © The common electricity market What is actually common? 12 We have many markets. Capacity markets All operated by the TSOs Primary reserves Automatically, very fast reacting units Secondary reserves Automatically, pretty fast reacting units Tertiary reserves Activated manually via telephone Energy markets Regulating energy Operated by the TSOs Day-ahead trading Trading electrical energy for tomorrow Exchange plus bilateral trading Intra-day trading Trading electrical energy for today Exchange plus bilateral trading Currently mainly national markets First made common Some of them are:
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © 13 Appendix 1 concepts and units April 9, 2013Anders Plejdrup Houmøller
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © 14 Concepts and units Power W (Watt) Energy Wh (Watt-hour) During an hour: how much water was fed in, taken out or flowing by? Capacity ConceptUnitWater analogy W (Watt) The ability to change a flow Flow: How much energy per second? The amount (for example, during an hour) Explanation The ability to change a flow Flow: How much water is being fed in, taken out or is flowing by per second?
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © 15 Appendix 2 The TSOs markets for regulating energy and regulating capacity The Nordic area and Western Denmark as cases April 9, 2013Anders Plejdrup Houmøller
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © 16 The Nordic TSOs market for regulating energy The producer has sold 200 MWh to the retailer. Price: 44 EUR/MWh TSO Sell 200 MWh to producer. Producers purchase bid price: 40 EUR/MWh Result for TSO: a production decrease of 200 MWh : buy at 40 EUR/MWh and sell at 44 EUR/MWh Producers marginal costs are 41 EUR/MWh Producers initial plan: produce 200 MWh R Retailer Producer P Example for an hour where the production is too big
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © All sellers in question get this price 17 Offers and bids at the Nordic TSOs market for regulating energy – 1 Sell reg. energy to TSOs Price at spot exchange for this hour (day-ahead market price) Example 1: during this hour, the TSOs had to buy this amount of regulating energy MWh EUR/MWh Buy reg. energy from TSOs Example for one Hour of Operation
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © 18 Offers and bids at the Nordic TSOs market for regulating energy – 2 Sell reg. energy to TSOs Price at spot exchange for this hour (day-ahead market price) All buyers in question pay this price Example 2: during this hour, the TSOs had to sell this amount of regulating energy MWh EUR/MWh Buy reg. energy from TSOs Example for one Hour of Operation
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © 19 Regulating energy – 1 The players at the Nordic TSOs market for regulating energy are paid the marginal price The last players price sets the price for everyone. April 9, 2013Anders Plejdrup Houmøller
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Regulating energy – 2 Assume you are a player with both wind turbines and gas fired power plants in your portfolio. Probably, your forecast for the wind turbine production will fail somewhat. For the next Hour of Operation: assume your gas fired power plants have spare capacity. Should you keep the spare capacity as your own reserve? This will enable you to adjust the production at the gas fired power plants. Thus fluctuations in your wind turbine production can be levelled out. Thereby your total production will be according to plan. Hence youll avoid settling an imbalance with the TSO. Alternatively, you can use the spare capacity to send regulating energy bids to the TSO. Due to the marginal pricing of regulating energy: the most profitable option is to use all your spare capacity to submit bids to the TSOs market for regulating energy. Thereby, the marginal pricing automatically draws in the maximum volume of bids to the TSOs market for regulating energy. This is expedient for the security of supply. 20
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © The Nordic market for regulating energy At the latest 45 minutes before the start of the Hour of Operation, players can send the local TSO the prices, at which they are willing to buy and sell regulating energy. Due to the separation of the TSOs markets for regulating energy and regulating capacity, the TSOs ensure maximum participation at the market for regulating energy: Players who could not offer capacity at the TSOs day-ahead markets for capacity, can offer to trade regulating energy For example: the owner of a wind farm, who knows the wind turbines will produce during the next Hour of Operation, can offer down regulating The owner will buy back energy at negative prices. Thereby, for the security of supply, by separating the TSOs markets for energy and capacity – and by having a late deadline for submitting bids to the TSOs energy market – the wind turbines become part of the solution (instead of being part of the problem) With increasing amounts of intermittent energy sources, the TSOs markets for energy and capacity must be designed, so the green producers become part of the solution! 21
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Consumption about 20 TWh/year. Min. load about 1,200 MW. Max. load about 3,700 MW. Wind turbines more than 3,200 MW (!). In 2012, energy produced by wind turbines constituted 36% of the total Danish electricity production This is the worlds highest wind penetration. In Western Denmark it was 38%. Still, with the worlds highest wind penetration, the DK1 security of supply was maintained solely by means of short-term capacity markets before the establishment of an electrical connection between Western and Eastern Denmark. Western Denmark (DK1) – 1 22April 9, 2013Anders Plejdrup Houmøller
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © DK1 became a case of how the TSOs purchase of capacity on a medium-term contract can play havoc with a short-term capacity market This happened after the establishment of an electrical connection between Western and Eastern Denmark. The DK1 experience with short-term capacity markets illustrate two points: The short-term markets price signal can attract lots of new capacity. TSO purchase of capacity on a medium-term contract can ruin a well-established short-term capacity market. Western Denmark (DK1) – 2 23April 9, 2013Anders Plejdrup Houmøller
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Primary reserve (about 25 MW) 30 sec.15 min. Reserves bought by the TSO Western Denmark as a case Secondary reserve (about 90 MW) Order + 15 min.Order Tertiary reserve: manually activated reserve MW Time FCR Frequency Containment Reserves FRR Frequency Restoration Reserves Former name: LFC automatic Load Frequency Control Day-ahead purchase Month-ahead purchase 24
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © The primary reserve is bought day-ahead. The capacity is autonomous Self activating when needed. The supplier of the service must be able to maintain the regulation up to 15 minutes. The secondary reserves are bought month- ahead. The capacity is activated automatically via an electronic signal from the TSOs control room. Western Denmark – 3 25April 9, 2013
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © The tertiary reserves were previously solely bought day-ahead Now, 300 MW have been bought via a medium-term contract. The day-ahead purchase is currently about 200 MW. The tertiary reserves are activated manually (via telephone). Note: even if a player has not sold regulating capacity day-ahead, the player can send bids and offers to the TSOs market for regulating energy The players capacity will be activated manually, if the TSO wants to trade with the player. Hence, a players capacity becomes part of the tertiary reserves, if the player sends bids to the TSOs market for regulating energy shortly before the start of the next Hour of Operation At the latest 45 minutes before the start of the Hour of Operation. Due to the late enrolment, the player is not paid for putting the capacity at the TSOs disposal. Theres only settlement for energy (if the players capacity is activated). For regulating energy from the manually activated units, there is a common Nordic market. All the information on the slides no. 16 – 21 refers to regulating energy delivered from manually activated units. Western Denmark – 4 26
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © 27 Appendix 3 Terminology and acronyms April 9, 2013
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Terminology and acronyms – 1 As used in this presentation Balance responsible player A player who is responsible for settling imbalances with the TSO. For a retailer, an imbalance occurs if the customers hourly consumption does not fit the retailers hourly purchase. For a producer, an imbalance occurs if the producers production does not fit the producers sale. A balance responsible player may also be portfolio manager, who settles imbalances on behalf of other market players. Day of Operation The day where the electrical energy is produced and consumed. DK1 Western Denmark. Down regulating A player buying electrical energy from the TSO. Its either a producer reducing the production or a consumer increasing the consumption. EU European Union. 28April 9, 2013Anders Plejdrup Houmøller
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Terminology and acronyms – 2 As used in this presentation Hour of Operation The hour where the electrical energy is produced and consumed. Long-term purchase of capacity Purchase where the capacity bought by the TSO must be put at the TSOs disposal for more than five years. Its implied the capacity is bought shortly before entering the period where the TSO has disposal of the capacity. Medium-term purchase of capacity Purchase where the capacity bought by the TSO must be put at the TSOs disposal for more than one month and up to five years. Its implied the capacity is bought shortly before entering the period where the TSO has disposal of the capacity. Nordic and Nordic area refer to the countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. 29April 9, 2013Anders Plejdrup Houmøller
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Terminology and acronyms – 3 As used in this presentation Price zone A geographical area, within which the players can trade electrical energy day-ahead without considering grid bottlenecks. Regulating capacity Capacity the TSOs buy in order to ensure the security of supply. The TSOs purchase of capacity ensures, the TSOs will always have regulating energy available. By changing the energy production/consumption of the capacity bought by the TSOs, the TSOs can ensure a balance between total production and total consumption. Regulating energy Energy which the TSOs buy or sell in order to maintain the security of supply (ie, maintain a balance between the total consumption and the total production). The TSOs counterparties are commercial market players. 30April 9, 2013Anders Plejdrup Houmøller
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Terminology and acronyms – 4 As used in this presentation Short-term purchase of capacity Purchase where the capacity bought by the TSO must be put at the TSOs disposal for maximum one month. Its implied the capacity is bought shortly before entering the period where the TSO has disposal of the capacity. In practice, this is capacity bought day-ahead or month-ahead. Hence the capacity is bought the day before the Day of Operation or bought shortly before entering the month in question. UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply. An electrical apparatus that provides emergency power when the main power fails. For example, a hospital normally have an UPS. TSO Transmission System Operator. An organisation owning and operating the transmission grid in a given area, and responsible for this areas security of supply. Up regulating A player selling electrical energy to the TSO. Its either a producer increasing the production or a consumer reducing the consumption. 31
Copyright Houmoller Consulting © Thank you for your attention! 32 Anders Plejdrup Houmøller Houmoller Consulting ApS Tel Web houmollerconsulting.dk
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