Presentation on theme: "RoboCup By: Paul Marlow Date: February 17, 2002. Background Initially started as the J-League (Japan Robot Soccer League) 1993, several American researchers."— Presentation transcript:
Background Initially started as the J-League (Japan Robot Soccer League) 1993, several American researchers became interested – bringing about the Robot World Cup Initiative (RoboCup) The first games and conferences took place in 1997
Background II Goal was to provide a new standard problem for AI – jokingly called “The life of AI after Deep Blue” RoboCup differs by focusing on a distributed solution rather than centralized The RoboCup Federation was started to coordinate the research through workshops, conferences and yearly competitions
Goals Stated as: “By mid-21 st century, a team of fully autonomous humanoid soccer players shall win the soccer game, comply with the official rules of the FIFA, against the winner of the most recent World Cup” Right now, the various leagues consist of either robots or programs, which cooperate in order to defeat the opponent team
Simulation League Provides a platform to develop software techniques, without the necessity of creating physical robots Consists of three main applications: –Soccer Server –Soccer Monitor –Soccer Player(s) - agents
Soccer Server A system allowing several autonomous program agents to play a virtual soccer game The games are carried out in a client/server style – where each client = one player The communication used is UDP/IP, and can therefore be used over a network connection, or even the Internet
Soccer Monitor Used to display the visual progress of the game Several Monitors can be connected to the server It can also be used to interrupt game play by doing simple tasks such as dropping a ball The latest version of the Soccer Server / Monitor is 8.03 – 5.24 was the last version for Windows
Autonomous Players Are the “brains” of the players Receive sensory information from the server, upon which decisions are made Commands are formatted and sent to the server using UDP sockets
Rules Judged by the Automated Referee Kick-Off Goal Out of Field Player Clearance Play-Mode control, including offsides Half-time and Time-up
How to Start the Server Download and install applications (running the configure and make scripts for the Unix / Linux systems) Run the Server (default host is localhost and default port is 6000) Run the Monitor, connecting to the host and port of the Server Connect the players also to the Server host and port
Connection Communication Protocols From client to server: –(init TeamName [(version VerNum)] [(goalie)]) –(reconnect TeamName Unum) –(bye) From server to client: –(init Side Unum PlayMode) as a response for both client init and reconnect messages Side = l | r; Unum = 1 ~ 11
Client Control Protocols Client CommandOnce per Cycle (catch Direction)Yes (change_view Width Quality)No (dash Power)Yes (kick Power Direction)Yes (move X Y)Yes (say Message)No (sense_body)No (score)No (turn Moment)Yes (turn_neck Angle)Yes
Client Sensor Protocol - See (see Time ObjInfo) –ObjInfo: (ObjName Distance Direction DistChange DirChange BodyFacingDir HeadFacingDir) or (ObjName Distance Direction DistChange DirChange) or (ObjName Distance Direction) or (ObjName Direction)
Client Sensor Protocol – See II ObjName: –(p [TeamName [UniformNum [goalie]]]) or –(b) or –(g [l|r]) or –(f c); (f [l|c|r] [t|b]); (f p [l|r] [t|c|b]); (f g [l|r] [t|b]); (f [l|r|t|b] 0); (f [t|b] [l|r] [10|20|30|40|50]); (f [l|r] [t|b] [10|20|30]); –(l [l|r|t|b]) –(B); (F); (G); (P)
Client Sensor Protocol – See III See protocol has changed from version 5 (Windows) to version 8 (Unix/Linux). The Windows version differs in the ObjName portion. Instead of using the first letter as the ObjName, the older versions use the fully qualified name: –b = ball, B = Ball, l = line, L = Line, p = player, P = Player, f = flag, F = Flag, g = goal, G = Goal
See Example (see 18 ((f r t) 44.7 -22) ((f g r b) 47.9 30) ((g r) 44.7 22) ((f g r t) 42.5 13) ((f p r c) 30.3 34 -0 0) ((f p r t) 25.3 -7 0 0) ((f t r 40) 36.2 -37) ((f t r 50) 44.7 -29) ((f r 0) 49.4 20) ((f r t 10) 47 8) ((f r t 20) 46.5 -3) ((f r t 30) 48.4 -15) ((f r b 10) 53.5 30) ((f r b 20) 59.1 38) ((f r t) 44.7 -22) ((f g r b) 47.9 30) ((g r) 44.7 22) ((f g r t) 42.5 13) ((f p r c) 30.3 34) ((f p r t) 25.3 -7 0 0) ((f t r 40) 36.2 -37) ((f t r 50) 44.7 -29) ((f r 0) 49.4 20) ((f r t 10) 47 8) ((f r t 20) 46.5 -3) ((f r t 30) 48.4 -15) ((f r b 10) 53.5 30) ((f r b 20) 59.1 38) ((p "FCPortugal") 36.6 28) ((l r) 41.7 -89))
Krislet There does not exist many clients that run under the old Windows environment. Those that do, tend to connect to a Unix/Linux computer running the Server Krislet is an extremely dumb program, which can be difficult to beat – as all the players run after the ball Krislet however, can communicate using the later protocols, and therefore all the parsing is complete
Stripslet Written by Aloke Wiki Based off of Krislet A Stripslet implementation is made up of four main concepts: Actors, Sensors, Actions, and a GoalList
Actors These are designed to implement a specific action, such as run-to-ball or score-goal Contains two main elements, an execute method – providing the functionality, and a name – which is used as a key into a hash table. To add a new Actor –Add a new class to the Actor.java, implementing the Actor Interface –Add the new Actor to the ActorTable hash in StripsBrain.java
Sensors These consist of objects which include a sense method, as well as a name for a hash table key. Each is designed to determine the boolean outcome of a specific predicate, such as can-see- goal. To add a new Sensor: –Add a new class to Sensor.java, implementing the Sensor Interface –Add the new Sensor to the SensorTable hash in StripsBrain.java.
Actions Actions consist of four members: name, precoditionList, addList, deleteList. name corresponds directly to that of the Actor name property (e.g. “score-goal”) precoditionList is a list of predicates which must be true before execution of the action (e.g. “have-ball can-see- goal”) addList is a list of predicates that will be true upon execution of the action (e.g. “ball-in-net”) deleteList is a list of predicates that will be false upon execution of the action (e.g. “have-ball”)
Actions II To add an Action: –StripsBrain maintains a list of actions, so any new actions must be added to this list –Note that multiple predicates in a list are separated by spaces actionList.add(new Action("score-goal", // name "have-ball can-see-goal", // pre "ball-in-net", // add "have-ball")); // delete
GoalList Contains a list of goals for which the agents try to achieve Currently the default list consists of only one predicate: “ball-in-net” Interesting possibilities include –Adding multiple goals –Re-evaluating the goal list each cycle depending on the environment
Approach The difference between our approach and those of others, is human supervision. The goal, is to provide a process with which one can create a symbolic log file as a representation of the socket communication during a game. In addition, use machine learning techniques on this data.
Approach II Instead of learning from mistakes/success as reinforcement learning does, the human user will actually help classify the data to be learned. However, there are problems with this approach, in that it can be tedious (as will be shown).
Step 1 – Obtain a Log File In order to learn, the communication between the client and server need to be logged to a file – thus the reason for our Logger. It acts like a router, sitting in-between the agent and the soccer server. The agent(s) connect to the Logger, which establishes a connection to the Soccer Server, forwarding communication – all the while logging also writing them to file(s).
Step 1 – Continued … An entry in the log file will look something like the following: (see 0 ((g r) 23.8 -19) ((f g r t) 27.1 -33) ((f g r b) 22.4 -2) ((f r t 10) 32.8 -33) ((f r 0) 28.5 - 16 0 0) ((f r b 10) 27.7 4 -0 0) ((f r b 20) 30 23) ((f r b 30) 35.2 38) ((p "EW_02" 1) 22.2 -21 0 0 0 0) ((l r) 22.4 -89))
Step 2 - Classification Once the log file has been obtained, it must be used in order to classify the data into symbolic form. Our Classifier application provides the user with a GUI such that objects can be classified as the user deems appropriate.
After all the classification required has been completed, use of the Generate button will create an ARFF file. The ARFF file is used in WEKA – a machine learning repository – as a data file.
Step 3 – Data Mining For some aspects of soccer, the determination of a particular action depends on more than one player. The LogMiner is used to filter out unwanted data, and may be used in the future to obtain particular entries – i.e. relating to passing. It makes use of the ARFF file(s) to convert the numerical data into a symbolic representation
Step 3 – Continued … The new log entry will look as follows: (see 0 ((g r) 23.8 -19) ((f g r t) 27.1 -33) ((f g r b) 22.4 -2) ((f r t 10) 32.8 -33) ((f r 0) 28.5 - 16 0 0) ((f r b 10) 27.7 4 -0 0) ((f r b 20) 30 23) ((f r b 30) 35.2 38) ((p "EW_02" 1) 22.2 -21 0 0 0 0) ((l r) 22.4 -89)) (see 0 (Goal Left_Near) (Flag Left_Near) (Flag Front_Near) (Flag ExtremeLeft_Far) (Flag Front_Near) (Flag Front_Near) (Flag Right_Far) (Flag Right_Far) (Teammate Left_Near) (Line ExtremeLeft_Near))
Step 4 – Use of Learning A GUI called IAS (In then Agent’s Shoes) was developed by Tarek Hassan, allowing a human to play as one of the agents. Instead of playing via commands, the goal is to convert the server communication to symbols – using these for visualizing the objects.
Step 4 – Continued … The problem, is that with any sort of symbolic representation, there will be a loss of detail – therefore the objects displayed will not be exact – just approximations. However, in real soccer, this is exactly the case! A player does not know that a teammate is 20 metres ahead, and 22 degrees to the left.
Summary of Process The process involves 4 main steps: –Obtain a log file (Logger) –Classification of objects (Classifier) –Data mining (LogMiner) –Using learned material (Advanced IAS).
References Most of the information about RoboCup itself was taken using from the RoboCup Soccer Server manual. For the latest manuals and code, visit the RoboCup project website at: –http://sourceforge.net/projects/sserverhttp://sourceforge.net/projects/sserver
Q & A Feel free to ask any questions If time permits, I will attempt to run a demonstration game.
Demo This small demo shows the three major components: –Soccer Server –Soccer Monitor –Soccer players (Krislet)