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American Imperialism and Progressivism 1890-1912.

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1 American Imperialism and Progressivism 1890-1912

2 What is Imperialism? ► Root word is Empire. ► An empire is a powerful nation with powerful leadership that seeks to acquire and control weaker nations. ► Sometimes the more powerful nations allow the weaker nations to rule themselves [ex. Ancient Rome]. ► Most of the time the Empire assimilates the weaker nation into the Empire and forces it into submission [ex. Soviet Union].

3 American “Imperialism” ► Some Americans believed it was the U.S. government’s duty to save foreign countries from themselves [religiously and economically]. ► Reverend Josiah Strong preached that “we must Christianize them,” by spreading our values to the “backward” people of the world. ► Former U.S. Navy officer Alfred Mahan believed the U.S. should build and maintain a powerful navy to assert world dominance. Mahan gave many examples of world powers who used such a tactic. ► Despite the above mentioned reasons many people believed the principal reason for U.S. imperialism was expansion of U.S. markets for sale of finished goods and acquisition of natural resources. Alfred Mahan

4 James G. Blaine’s Big Sister Policy ► Blaine was U.S. Secretary of State [for the second time] from 1889-1892. ► He wanted the U.S. to “rally” Latin American countries to the side of the United States. ► Acting as a “Big Sister” the U.S. could open up markets to buy cheap goods and sell finished goods to them. ► Big Businesses in the U.S. would benefit.

5 Queen Liliuokalani ► In the Far East in the Pacific Ocean region the Hawaiian Islands were close enough to be reached by the U.S. rather quickly by steam ship. ► American settlers and planters [large farm holders] wanted Hawaii annexed into the United States. ► Hawaii’s queen did not agree with total U.S. control. However, U.S. military forces supported the U.S. business actions and Hawaii became a U.S. controlled territory [became last U.S. state in 1959].

6 USS Maine ► A U.S. warship sent to Havana Harbor in Cuba to protect U.S. interests in 1898. ► Cuba at the time was a Spanish possession. ► There was tension between the U.S. and Spain because Spain held territories within the United States’ sphere of influence. ► Aboard the USS Maine were tons of explosives that were not tightly guarded or secured. ► A huge explosion occurred killing at least 266 U.S. personnel. ► U.S. newspaper articles speculated that Spain had sunk the ship. The U.S. declared war on Spain and defeated her within 113 days. newspaper articles speculated newspaper articles speculated

7 American Jingoism ► Emboldened by American war hawks and sensationalist newspapers America became more aggressive militarily. ► America entered into a policy of jingoism that stressed U.S. military power and territorial expansion abroad. ► The immediate result was the acquisition of Puerto Rico, Cuba, Guam and the Philippines from the Spanish-American War. ► What’s the problem with this policy? ► The U.S. will have more enemies and envious competitors

8 The Teller Amendment and Cuba ► President McKinley sought authority [War Message] from Congress to attack Spain as revenge for the USS Maine. ► Senator Teller of Colorado added an amendment to the war declaration that would forbid the U.S. from establishing a permanent colony in Cuba. ► Cuba would be liberated and allowed to be an independent nation.

9 Take out your sheet of paper with the 24 questions from Chapters 27-29. Please wait for further instructions.

10 The Rough Riders ► Due to the destruction and low morale created by the U.S. Civil War the U.S. Military [especially the army] had very low numbers. ► In order to field a force able to battle Spain in the so-called Spanish- American War more than 1,000 volunteers were called to duty by President McKinley. ► Former NYC police commissioner and state legislator Theodore Roosevelt was selected as second in command of the 1 st Cavalry Brigade. Teddy Roosevelt

11 The Rough Riders ► Many of the soldiers were very experienced. ► Veterans of the U.S. Civil War and Western Indian Wars were eager to see action in Cuba. ► The group included gamblers, army veterans, hunters, Buffalo soldiers, Native-Americans and college students. ► Within weeks of their arrival in Cuba the Rough Riders were triumphant in key battles including the famous and decisive Battle of San Juan Hill. ► Their exploits enabled the U.S. to defeat Spain and liberate Cuba. Lt. Colonel Roosevelt

12 Cuba ► Cuban citizens had long fought against Spanish rule of the island nation. ► Many Cuban émigrés fled to the United States and received sympathy and support. The poet Jose Marti was also wary of U.S. control of the island. ► 4 years after its liberation from Spain the United States granted Cuba its independence. ► The Platt Amendment passed by Congress in 1901 allowed the U.S. to maintain a naval base at Guantanamo Bay. Cuban Revolutionary Jose Marti

13 Enter T.R. [Theodore Roosevelt] ► After his exploits as Rough Rider, NYS legislator, author, explorer, big game hunter, NYC Police Commissioner and governor of NYS he was selected as McKinley’s running mate in 1900. ► McKinley was assassinated on September 14, 1901 elevating Roosevelt to president of the United States. ► Immediately after Roosevelt became president the international image of the United States changed. Roosevelt introduced the concept of Big Stick Diplomacy.

14 Big Stick Diplomacy ► To assert and maintain control of the American sphere of influence President Teddy Roosevelt used what he called Big Stick Diplomacy. ► His motto [borrowed from ad old African proverb was “speak softly and carry a big stick.”] ► The metaphor was meant to clearly state his intent to carry out a foreign policy based on strong military action when needed to support U.S. interests. Echoing Alfred Mahan’s opinion that a strong navy would aid this mission the U.S. Navy was essential to projecting U.S. power.

15 Focus Groups ► Assemble into groups of no more than 4 students. ► Elect a group leader and time keeper. ► As a group take 7-8 minutes to decide which 3-4 questions or issues your group will discuss. Spend about 6-7 minutes on each question or issue your group decides to raise. ► Time keeper will make sure the time limits are followed. ► Group leader will make sure group members stay “focused” and stick to the questions, issues and that each group member takes turns.

16 The Panama Canal ► The Panama Canal was completed after a long and dangerous 10 year construction. ► France had earlier failed miserably in its attempt to build the Canal. ► Many people died during the long, tedious and dangerous construction. ► THE PURPOSE OF THE CANAL WAS TO ENSURE THAT MARKETS IN SOUTH AMERICA AND ASIA WOULD BE OPENED TO THE UNITED STATES. ► The Panama Canal shortened shipping time and distance between the U.S. and Latin America as well as Asia.

17 The Roosevelt Corollary ► Roosevelt built onto the foreign policy established by President Monroe. ► The Monroe Doctrine asserted the U.S. would respond militarily if European powers interfered in the Caribbean and Latin America. ► Roosevelt added that the U.S. would intervene by force, if necessary, into the affairs of Caribbean nations if they could not pay debts or posed a threat to U.S. interests.

18 Gentleman’s Agreement of 1907 ► In order to satisfy the desires of nativists in California the U.S. and Japan agreed to cease Japanese immigration to the U.S. ► This policy was intended to soothe tensions between the 2 nations. ► In exchange the U.S. would guarantee favorable trade with Japan.

19 Progressivism ► Root word of progressivism is Progress. ► At the turn of the 20 th Century many concerned Americans wanted to reform “monopoly, corruption, inefficiency and social injustice.” ► By using the power of government the lives of United States citizens and new immigrants could be improved. ► Improving the everyday lives of people in the United States was seen as Progress.

20 Jacob Riis and his Photos ► Jacob Riis was an immigrant from Denmark. ► He was a photo-journalist [photographer who told stories with photos] for New York City newspapers. ► He told thousands of photos showing how immigrants lived in squalor [horrible poverty], and unsafe/unsanitary conditions. ► In 1890 he published a collection of his photos titled How the Other Half Lives showing how the poorest of the urban poor lived. Americans were outraged!

21 Focus Groups ► Assemble into groups of no more than 4 students. ► Elect a group leader and time keeper. ► As a group take 7-8 minutes to decide which 3-4 questions or issues your group will discuss. Spend about 6-7 minutes on each question or issue your group decides to raise. ► Time keeper will make sure the time limits are followed. ► Group leader will make sure group members stay “focused” and stick to the questions, issues and that each group member takes turns.

22 Muck and Muckrakers ► Muck is another word for dirt, slime and filth. ► During the late Gilded Age and expansion of industrialization courageous journalists wrote scathing, stinging rebukes of certain businesses. ► These writers were said to stir up muck or dirt by exposing corruption or injustice. ► Ida Tarbell a journalist [reporter] writer based out of New York wrote dozens of investigative reports about the tactics of the Standard Oil Company. ► Her newspaper was threatened with lawsuits several times but due to good fact checking no lawsuits were ever successful. ► Many people believed the stories were instrumental in the passage of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act that broke up the oil trust.

23 Muck and Muckrakers ► Novelist Upton Sinclair, another muckraker, wrote about the scandalously organized meat packing industry. ► His best selling book The Jungle detailed how unsafe working conditions in the meat packing industry that burdened mostly immigrant workers. ► His tales of extremely poor sanitation conditions threatened the lives of consumers who ate products often housed among rodents, roaches and other vermin. ► As a result, shortly after the novel was released, the FDA [Food and Drug Administration] was founded to protect food safety.

24 The Square Deal ► President Theodore Roosevelt was outraged by The Jungle. ► Roosevelt ordered review of all major business industries and wanted to install tighter government control to prevent abuse by Big Business. ► Roosevelt’s solution was to unveil a domestic policy called the Square Deal predicated on environmental conservation, consumer protection and trust busting. ► Many citizens doubted he could control the immense power of companies such as U.S. Steel and Standard Oil. ► Many new anti-trust regulations were passed during and after his administration and millions of acres of forest were saved by national parks.

25 Dollar Diplomacy ► Roosevelt decided not to run for re- election in 1908. ► His protégé William Howard Taft won the 1908 election. ► Taft decided to maintain U.S. foreign policy influence by using financial resources to bribe, loan or prop up failing Caribbean nations. ► The use of military force was minimized compared to the Monroe Doctrine and Roosevelt Corollary.

26 Woodrow Wilson ► Elected president of the United States in 1912 after the one term failure of Republican William Howard Taft. ► He was a well known and influential professor and president at the prestigious Princeton University. ► During the crowded 1912 election he received 41% of the popular vote among 5 candidates. ► The Electoral College gave him a majority enabling him to secure the presidency against the incumbent Taft and former president Teddy Roosevelt.

27 The Bull-Moose Campaign ► Teddy Roosevelt after sitting out the 1908 presidential campaign hated what Taft had done to the Republican party and the U.S. ► Roosevelt could not wrest the Republican nomination but ran as a Progressive party candidate to promote reform. ► His platform was based on tighter federal regulation to control powerful trusts. ► Monopolies run by Morgan, Rockefeller and Carnegie needed to be busted up according to Roosevelt. ► The progressive party got its nick name Bull-Moose because of a quote from Roosevelt saying he was as “fit as a moose” after being shot by a would be assassin giving a speech in Milwaukee.

28 Wilson and Reform ► Throughout Wilson’s entire first term he was berated in the press by Roosevelt for not being tough on Big Business. ► In response to criticism from the former president he fought to lower tariffs that decreased competition from cheaper foreign goods and enabled U.S. businesses to make enormous profits at the expense of U.S. consumers. ► Wilson also reversed the U.S. reliance on Dollar diplomacy. ► In doing so Wilson made enemies of large U.S. banks who made fortunes lending money to foreign countries.

29 Wilson’s Policies ► Wilson was more flexible in his foreign policy than Roosevelt. ► He pushed for freedom for the Philippines with the Jones Act which allowed for independence as soon they developed a stable government [1946]. ► However, he sent troops to Haiti in 1916 to stabilize political unrest. ► His most controversial policy was isolationism which stressed a stance of non- involvement in European wars. ► After German aggression against France and England many people in Europe called for U.S. entrance into the unfolding Great War [World War I]. ► The ocean liner R.M.S. Lusitania was sunk by a German u-boat in May of 1915 testing his isolationist stance after more than 100 Americans were killed. Many Americans called for revenge. The did not enter the War.

30 Create answers for questions Chapter 29 ► Two questions to present to class. ► Create 4 groups, select 2 questions per group. ► Each group member should provide some input for class.

31 Image sources ► http://www.rome.info/ancient/map/ancientmap.gif http://www.rome.info/ancient/map/ancientmap.gif ► http://www.map.primorye.ru/raster/maps/commonwealth/soviet_union_admin_1984.jpg http://www.map.primorye.ru/raster/maps/commonwealth/soviet_union_admin_1984.jpg ► http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h48056k.jpg http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h48056k.jpg ► http://cedarconsulting.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/latin_america.gif http://cedarconsulting.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/latin_america.gif ► http://wrscoldwar.pbworks.com/f/WreckMaineMil270.jpg http://wrscoldwar.pbworks.com/f/WreckMaineMil270.jpg ► http://smartregion.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/USS-Maine.jpg http://smartregion.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/USS-Maine.jpg ► http://www.cartoonstock.com/lowres/csl0318l.jpg http://www.cartoonstock.com/lowres/csl0318l.jpg ► http://www.old-picture.com/mathew-brady-studio/pictures/President-McKinley.jpg http://www.old-picture.com/mathew-brady-studio/pictures/President-McKinley.jpg ► http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:RoughRiders.jpeg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:RoughRiders.jpeg ► http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Col_roosevelt_rough_rider.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Col_roosevelt_rough_rider.jpg ► http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Liberators_of_Cuba.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Liberators_of_Cuba.jpg ► http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Theodore_Roosevelt_circa_1902.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Theodore_Roosevelt_circa_1902.jpg ► http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LocationCuba.svg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LocationCuba.svg ► http://www.bobbyrica.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/panama-canal.jpg http://www.bobbyrica.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/panama-canal.jpg ► http://centralamerica.com/panama/graphics/mapcanal.gif http://centralamerica.com/panama/graphics/mapcanal.gif ► http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roosevelt_monroe_Doctrine_cartoon.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roosevelt_monroe_Doctrine_cartoon.jpg ► http://media-1.web.britannica.com/eb-media/96/126396-003-AAA22BA3.gif http://media-1.web.britannica.com/eb-media/96/126396-003-AAA22BA3.gif ► http://www.thepublicprofessor.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Homeless-person.jpg http://www.thepublicprofessor.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Homeless-person.jpg ► http://whitewraithe.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/middle_class_0226.jpg http://whitewraithe.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/middle_class_0226.jpg ► http://www.noonewatching.com/archives/2007/09/ida%20tarbell-thumb.jpeg http://www.noonewatching.com/archives/2007/09/ida%20tarbell-thumb.jpeg ► http://www.bobfelton.com/images/upton_sinclair.jpg http://www.bobfelton.com/images/upton_sinclair.jpg ► http://www.mentalfloss.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/435_squaredea%3Bl.jpg http://www.mentalfloss.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/435_squaredea%3Bl.jpg ► http://www.veteranstoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Big-Business.jpg http://www.veteranstoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Big-Business.jpg ► http://www.thoughtsfromaconservativemom.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/woodrow-wilson-008.jpg


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