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© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND1 v1.0—3-1 Wireless LANs Exploring Wireless Networking
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND1 v1.0—3-2 Market Trends
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND1 v1.0—3-3 Differences Between WLAN and LAN WLANs use radio waves as the physical layer. –WLANs use CSMA/CA instead of CSMA/CD for media access. –Two-way radio (half-duplex) communication. Radio waves have problems that are not found on wires. –Connectivity issues: Coverage problems Interference, noise –Privacy issues Access points are shared devices similar to an Ethernet hub for shared bandwidth. WLANs must meet country-specific RF regulations.
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND1 v1.0—3-4 Radio Frequency Transmission Radio frequencies are radiated into the air via an antenna, creating radio waves. Objects can affect radio wave propagation resulting in: –Reflection –Scattering –Absorption Higher frequencies allow higher data rates; however, they have a shorter range.
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND1 v1.0—3-5 Organizations That Define WLAN ITU-R: International Telecommunication Union- Radiocommunication Sector Regulates the RF used in wireless IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers documents wireless technical standards Wi-Fi Alliance: Global nonprofit industry trade association Promote wireless growth through interoperability certification
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND1 v1.0—3-6 ITU-R with FCC Wireless ISM: industry, scientific, and medical frequency band No license required No exclusive use Best-effort Interference possible
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND1 v1.0—3-7 IEEE Standards Comparison b802.11a802.11g Frequency band 2.4 GHz5 GHz2.4 GHz No. of channels 3Up to 233 Transmission Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Data rates [Mb/s] 1, 2, 5.5, 11 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 1, 2, 5.5, 11 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND1 v1.0—3-8 Wi-Fi Certification Wi-Fi Alliance certifies interoperability between products. Products include a, b, g, dual-band products, and security testing. Provides assurance to customers of migration and integration options. Cisco is a founding member of the Wi-Fi Alliance. Certified products can be found at
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND1 v1.0—3-9 Summary People now expect to be connected at any time and place. However, the most tangible benefit of wireless is the cost reduction. Both WLANs and LAN use CSMA. However WLANs use collision avoidance while LANs use collistion detection. Radio frequencies are radiated into the air by antennas, where they are affected by reflection, scattering, and absorption. The IEEE defines the standards.
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND1 v1.0—3-10 Summary (Cont.) The ITU-R local FCC wireless bands are unlicensed. The standards are a set of standards that define the frequencies and radio bands for WLANs. One of the primary benefits of the Wi-Fi Alliance is to ensure interoperability among products.
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND1 v1.0—3-11
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