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Cell Structure and Function Goals 1.Identify the main function of the membrane 2.Describe what happens during diffusion 3.Explain the processes of osmosis,

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Structure and Function Goals 1.Identify the main function of the membrane 2.Describe what happens during diffusion 3.Explain the processes of osmosis,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Structure and Function Goals 1.Identify the main function of the membrane 2.Describe what happens during diffusion 3.Explain the processes of osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport 7.3 Movement across the cell membrane

2 The Cell Membrane Functions Regulates what enters and leaves the cell Protection Support

3 The Cell Membrane Structure Bilipid layer flexible strong Protein molecules Carbohydrates attached to the proteins

4 The Cell Membrane Structure Outside of cell Inside of cell (cytoplasm) Cell membrane Proteins Protein channel Lipid bilayer Carbohydrate chains Chunk and chew

5 Osmosis Diffusion movement from area of high concentration to area of low concentration Selective permeability Some substances cannot cross biological membranes Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

6 Diffusion Molecules tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration Equilibrium has been reached when the concentration is the same throughout the solution Diffusion causes many substances to move across a cell membrane but does not require the cell to expend energy.

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8 How Osmosis Works Cell membrane Higher Concentration of Water Lower Concentration of Water Water molecules Sugar molecules Hypertonic - Above Strength Hypotonic - Below Strength

9 How Osmosis Works Cell membrane Higher Concentration of Water Lower Concentration of Water Water molecules Sugar molecules Hypertonic - Above Strength Hypotonic - Below Strength

10 How Osmosis Works Cell membrane Higher Concentration of Water Lower Concentration of Water Water molecules Sugar molecules Hypertonic - Above Strength Hypotonic - Below Strength

11 How Osmosis Works Cell membrane Higher Concentration of Water Lower Concentration of Water Water molecules Sugar molecules Hypertonic - Above Strength Hypotonic - Below Strength Red blood cells burst when placed in distilled water. Make a labeled diagram to illustrate why. Use the terms osmosis, diffusion and concentration gradient.

12 Osmotic Pressure Can cause problems when water moves into hypertonic cell spaces Bursting the cell like a balloon Most cells are bathed in isotonic fluids like blood Some cells actively pump out water that is forced in by osmosis

13 Biology Warm Up: Organelle Review Make a sketch of a plant cell. Label two features that identify it as a plant cell and not an animal cell. Without using your notes, draw and label 1. the organelle responsible for absorbing light energy and using it to convert carbon dioxide and water to high-energy sugars (photosynthesis). 2. the organelle that is responsible for converting sugars into high energy molecules. This is the powerhouse of the cell. 3. the organelle that stores the genetic information that controls cell activities. Include the name of the molecule that carries that genetic information. 4. the organelle responsible for assembling strings amino acids into proteins.

14 Observing Cell Parts and Processes We’ll be doing this lab on Thursday. Please write a complete Procedure with materials and diagrams. We will be doing both parts of the lab. You must have this lab procedure written up and ready to go in order to start the lab next class.

15 Facilitated Diffusion Protein Channel Though fast and specific, still diffusion Requires higher concentration on one side of the membrane than on the other Requires no energy High Concentration Low Concentration Cell Membrane Glucose molecules Protein channel

16 Active Transport Movement against the concentration difference Requires input of energy Molecule to be carried Low Concentration Cell Membrane High Concentration Molecule being carried Low Concentration Cell Membrane High Concentration Energy

17 Active Transport Movement against the concentration difference Requires input of energy Endocytosis Taking materials in through infoldings or pockets that break loose from the membrane and form a vacuole Phagocytosis Engulfing large particles by endocytosis Exocytosis Vacuole fuses with cell membrane to expel contents

18 WarmUp Osmosis/Diffusion 1. Mr. Schafer adds a drop of red food coloring to a large beaker of water. What do you expect to happen to the drop over time. Explain in terms of relative concentration of food coloring in different parts of the beaker. What word describes this phenomenon? 2. This week, you will be placing your egg into a cup of syrup. What do you think will happen? Explain in terms of relative concentration of water inside and outside of the egg. What word describes this phenomenon? 3. You will then place your egg into a cup of pure water. What do you expect to happen? Explain in terms of relative concentration of water inside and outside of the egg. 4.What quality of the membrane surrounding the egg makes possible the phenomenon described in questions 2 and 3? 5. Why do red blood cells burst when placed in water?

19 Diversity of Cellular Life Describe Cell Specialization Identify The organization levels in multicellular organisms

20 Unicellular Organisms Cells of multicellular organism do not live on their own Cells are specialized to perform certain functions Multicellular Organisms Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes everywhere Some unicellular organisms are colonial

21 Levels of Organization 1.Cells Specialized cells such as nerve cells, muscle cells depend on other specialized cells to provide their needs (food, oxygen)

22 Levels of Organization 1.Cells Specialized cells such as nerve cells, muscle cells depend on other specialized cells to provide their needs (food, oxygen) 2. Tissues A group of similar cells that perform a particular funciton

23 Levels of Organization 1.Cells 2. Tissues A group of similar cells that perform a particular funciton muscle epithelial (skin inside and out) nervous connective (bone, blood, cartilidge, lymph)

24 Levels of Organization 1.Cells 2. Tissues muscle epithelial (skin inside and out) nervous connective (bone, blood, cartilage, lymph) 3. Organ - several tissues working together Each muscle is more than just muscle tissue

25 Levels of Organization 1.Cells 2. Tissues 3. Organ - several tissues working together Each muscle is more than just muscle tissue 4. Organ systems Organs that work together to perform a specific function

26 Levels of Organization 1.Cells 2. Tissues 3. Organ 4. Organ system Organs that work together to perform a specific function

27 Levels of Organization 4. Organ system Organs that work together to perform a specific function Muscular Skeletal Circulatory Nervous We will go through all 11 systems in unit 10

28 Levels of Organization 1.Cells 2. Tissues 3. Organ 4. Organ system Muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue StomachDigestive system


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