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SEHS Topic 6: Measurement and Evaluation of Human Performance

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Can you calculate the mean and standard deviation?(must be able to perform it on a Ti- 84 or similar calculator) Instructions: te-standard-deviations-ti84s.html te-standard-deviations-ti84s.html

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Outline what information error bars provide on a graph

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What do 1 and 2 standard deviations say about a normally distributed data set? Approximately 68% to 95% of the data values fall within +/- one or two standard deviations of the mean

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Explain how the standard deviation is useful

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Coefficient of Variation

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Deduce the significance of the difference between two sets of data using calculated t-test values When a t-test can be applied?: Data should have a normal distribution (aka. a continuous probability distribution ) every normal curve (regardless of its mean or standard deviation) conforms to the following "rule". – About 68% of the area under the curve falls within 1 standard deviation of the mean. – About 95% of the area under the curve falls within 2 standard deviations of the mean. – About 99.7% of the area under the curve falls within 3 standard deviations of the mean.) * Sample size of at least 10/data set *Used for two-tailed *Paired or unpaired data

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T-test Cont’d

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Explain that the existence of a correlation does not establish that there is a causal relationship between two variables Relationship vs cause Specificity There is a relationship between lung cancer and smoking Is smoking the cause of all lung cancers? – Strong correlation but not necessarily the cause

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Proper Study Design When measuring an individual’s fitness levels it is important to ensure it is done as well as possible Main factors to take into account: – Specificity (sport specific tests….ex?) – Accuracy(technical/instrument upkeep) – Reliability (the degree to which a measure would produce the same result from one occasion to another) – test after skill is learned completely to avoid habituation effect – Validity(sport specific test and repititions)

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Designing sport and exercise science experiments Cause and effect experimentation Does taking 20g of creatine phosphate 30 minutes before a resistance training workout produce significant improvement of one’s 1 rep max? What’s wrong with this design? How can it be designed better? PRE-TEST---- TREATMENT W/ CP POST-TEST

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Here’s a hint: EXPERIMEN TAL GROUP PRE-TEST POST TEST CONTROL GROUP PRE-TEST POST TEST

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Made better still by adding a placebo

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