Presentation on theme: "10-15 Hours/Year from 1 st to 12 th Grade. TEACHING THE HOLOCAUST IN THE EDUCATION SYSTEM IN ISRAEL."— Presentation transcript:
10-15 Hours/Year from 1 st to 12 th Grade. TEACHING THE HOLOCAUST IN THE EDUCATION SYSTEM IN ISRAEL
“As long as it’s not too late, we must reach the recognition that the Holocaust is not the obsession of the Holocaust survivors, and the contemplation with the six million victims, the lesson of the time are not just the concern of only those which have experienced the horrors on their skin, but part of a long collective memory of the nation of Israel, and the place of the Holocaust is in the historical awareness of every Jewish generation wherever he is.” Abba Kovner, Detaining the Tearing, Tel Aviv 1998, p. 164 The story of the Holocaust of the Jewish people is one of the low points in the history of man, and it deserves to be studied and passed from generation to generation. “And thou shall tell thy son” (Exodus 13:8) We should aspire to teach towards an exemplary moral society, a society whose guiding principles are acceptance and compassion, concern for the other, their dignity and equality. GENERAL RATIONALE DOCUMENT PUBLISH BY THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION WHY TO TEACH THE HOLOCAUST?
- Familiarizing with the H. story - Getting to know the lost Jewish world - Empathizing with the H. victims - Nurturing human sensitivity Obligation to combat racism humanistic and universal values Responsibility for the existence of the Jewish people democratic society, tolerance and sensitivity for the other, aspiring to a model society Jewish values Commitment to the existence of a Jewish Democratic state Promoting self- efficacy (cognitive & emotional tools based on the H. story) The human spirit and its expressions (via the H. story) Goals
Students in Israel are exposed to the Holocaust from a young age and therefore you cannot hide such a major event from children. You must explain to the children the siren on Memorial Day. They hear about the Holocaust from the media without moderation. In order to safeguard the children, we have to introduce the subject in an age appropriate way that speaks cognitively and emotionally to the child. GENERAL RATIONALE DOCUMENT PUBLISH BY THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION WHY BEGIN TEACHING AT A YOUNG AGE?
INDIVIDUAL FAMILY COMMUNITY “THE LARGER QUESTIONS” SPIRAL APPROACH K1-12 TO HOLOCAUST STUDIES MAIN TOPICS: JEWISH LIFE BEFORE THE HOLOCAUST. HISTORICAL CONTEXT JEWISH SURVIVAL IN THE HOLOCAUST RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS – PERPETRATORS AFTER MATH – RETURN TO LIFE AGE THEMES:
Principles in approaching the Holocaust in primary schools Teaching the Holocaust by an educator who has a long- term relationship with the children in order to create a safe atmosphere. Teaching the Holocaust through the story of the individual, which helps to: -Create empathy -Explain basic terms through a controlled and safe context. (The terms are not vague and intimidating). -Introducing the stories with ‘emotional anchors’. -Emphasizing aspects of help and morality in the chosen stories.
High SchoolMiddle SchoolElementaryEarly ElementaryKey Topics Political movements in the Jewish society, the relationship with the general population. Familiarity with the wide geographic distribution of the Jewish people. Expanding knowledge about the Jewish cultural and spiritual life. Basic familiarity with diversity of the Jewish communities in Europe and major subjects of the Holocaust Through the eyes of the child- The Jewish world before the Holocaust Empathy and Normality Jewish Life Before the Holocaust Complex moral dilemmas and how to cope in the face of chaos Exposing the student to complex Questions of Jewish identity Questions of identity and rescue Understanding the difficulties along with the emotional anchors: Mutual help, the family’s struggle for life. Coping with internal mental strength, imagination, and resourcefulness The Human Story: a. Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust b. Between the Perpetrators, Bystanders and the Righteous Among the Nations Discussion about perpetrators and collaborators: How was it humanly possible? Subjects to be taught: Outcast, prejudice, and antisemitism. Through personal stories the concept of Germans, collaborators and the bystanders is introduced. Focus: Righteous Among the Nations Return to Life and engaging with the legacy of survivors The pain of loss along with the construction process The complex process of returning to life in different stages: Rehabilitation through immigrating and the establishment of the State of Israel Rebuilding from the beginning- centrality of the survivor Return to Life Stages of the Nazi policies and general historical processes Every subject which is taught in middle school is combined with a wide historical introduction. Basic historical concepts taught through personal stories: Ghetto, Yellow Star Learning the basic context Historical Context
Jewish Life Before the Holocaust- Example for teaching tools Years 5-6 “I was born in 1939 in Biala Ravska, a town where Jews and Poles had lived and worked together for generation. My grandmother lived in the center of town next to the marketplace, and all of my cousins lived in a Jewish neighborhood close by. My parents, Hershel and Zisel Hershkowitz, And I lived on a busy street in Biala Ravska, across from another Jewish family.” “The Jews spoke Yiddish and Polish and many also spoke Hebrew … My mother, she was quite beautiful and very smart. Before her marriage to Father, she had studied pharmacology in Vienna, Austria. Upon returning to Czortkow, she worked in the pharmacy that was on the main street close to were we leaved. Every day during lunch break and towards evening, when I heard the tapping of high heels on the stairs, I knew that Mother was returning home from work.” Years 3-4
Jewish Life Before the Holocaust- Middle School and High School Middle School High School “ We were in school six days a week. We had an awful lot of homework. We belonged to youth groups, went skating in winter, played tennis in summer. I was a gymnast and in track.” Dora (12), Poland “One day a new movie theatre called The Palladium opened in Warsaw. Isabella talked my mother into coming with us to see Shirley Temple movie.” Anna H. (10), Poalnd "We were a Jewish family, not religious, not even traditional, but a Zionist family. Of course, we celebrated the Jewish holidays. I, for instance, didn’t go to school during the holidays, because Jewish children were allowed not to go. For instance, I remember, that on Passover (Pessah), which is seven days long, I didn’t want to miss so much school, so I went. But I didn’t study. I went to the classroom as an observer” (Ruth Gat) The Synagogue on Praska Street- Lesson Plan Yad Vashem website
Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust Elementary Early Elementary Tommy: Butterfly: “ I was six years old. It was the first day of school in September… Marisha want through the gate. And I followed her, as the watchman greeted her. ‘where are you going?’ he asked me. ‘To school, to the first grade’ I said… The watchman blocked my way. ‘no. not you…you are Jew’…. I went home… ‘come’ said mother. ‘the new school year begun. Your books are waiting…’ Marta: “One day, Mother woke me early ‘Martush, today you are coming to the pharmacy with me’ …Once we were out of the ghetto Mother whispered ‘Stand up straight and look people in the eye, let them think that you are a local’ … (p. 23) “ it is very important for me to prepare you for life after the war and therefore at this moment I announce the festive opening of the school year in Marta’s school” (p. 27) “ one night after we had finished studying Mother whispered ‘Martush we must part’… every evening Mother repeated ‘the following instructions: Be nice and smile and than they will love you, Do what you are told and help as much as possible… And most important of all: always try to have laughing eyes, children do not like other children with sad eyes”
Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust High SchoolMiddle School.... We wanted to give man the opportunity to free himself from the ghetto for several hours, and this we achieved. We are passing through dark and difficult days. Our bodies are in the ghetto, but our spirit has not been enslaved... Before the first concert it was said that concerts should not be held in graveyards. True, the statement is true, but all of life is now a graveyard. Our hands must not falter. We must be strong in body and soul… Jakcob Gens in a speech given on the assembly marking the first anniversary of the theater on January 15, 1943. “ In a cemetery a theater should not exist ”
Between the Perpetrators and the Righteous Among the Nations- Examples of teaching tools “For two years we lived with them. For two years I did not leave the building. For two years I did not walk around the apartment. For two years I did not go near the window -- I would always crawl underneath For two years Hanka and Basha did not bring home any friends … Mother, Hanka, and I denced wildly around the apartment. It was a dance of happiness, a dance of victory over the forces of evil” Years 3-4Years 5-6 “If everything goes well, we will reach Warsaw in three days. It will be an exhausting trip with many stops along the way. On the train there are both nice people and very not nice people. There are also drunkards and many quarrels and fights. Aside from everything else, the German soldiers are looking for Jews who have managed to sneak onto the train …We traveled for three days and three nights. It was a difficult journey and I was not permitted to move from my seat except to go to the bathroom. I was afraid of everyone who passed by and looked at me. I missed my Mother... I thought about how wonderful Lydka was – she had agreed to come from Warsaw and take me back with her”
Between the Perpetrators and the Righteous Among the Nations- Middle School and High School Middle School High School "I sat down by myself in one of the back rows of the auditorium wondering what the principal wanted from us. And without really listening to his words I KNEW WHAT HE WAS GOING TO SAY: Someday you will return- we will welcome you back with open arms. But now we must part. My heart is heavy as I tell you this news. But I have no choice." Rosemarie (13) Austria- Holland Testimony / By: Dan Pagis No no: they definitely were human beings: uniforms, boots. How to explain? They were created in the image. I was a shade. A different creator made me. And he in his mercy left nothing of me that would die. And I fled to him, rose weightless, blue, forgiving – I would even say: apologizing – smoke to omnipotent smoke without image or likeness. How was it humanly possible? “I had only one bad experience, Annelise told me. ‘It was with my gym teacher who was also Nazi. I had a friend in that class who was also Jewish. She and I were the best in the gym class. And the teacher was always yelling at the rest of the class saying: You lazy girls! How can you let these two Jewish girls be better than you?”. Catherine (fled Germany in 1938)
Zinovii Tolkatchov The Appel 1944Gott Mit Uns
The Spiral Age Appropriate Approach together with Respective historical discussion and the development of values Elementary Middle School High School Protected dialogue and providing Basic historical concepts Relevant topics for Moral development of the students will be present initially Expanding the historical knowledge, and the diversity of the topics and voices Exposing the student to the complexity of the story in terms of the fate of the Jews and their coping strategies Historical study of the complexity of the Holocaust. Deep learning of moral dilemmas and identity questions among Jews. Discussion in depth about the behavior of people during the Holocaust and the question: How was it humanly possible?