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Environmental Justice. OUTLLINE I) IntroductionI) Introduction –Conceptualizing EJ; context: II) Landmarks in U.S. domestic historyII) Landmarks in U.S.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Justice. OUTLLINE I) IntroductionI) Introduction –Conceptualizing EJ; context: II) Landmarks in U.S. domestic historyII) Landmarks in U.S."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Justice

2 OUTLLINE I) IntroductionI) Introduction –Conceptualizing EJ; context: II) Landmarks in U.S. domestic historyII) Landmarks in U.S. domestic history – Development as Movement III) What forms can environmental injustice take?III) What forms can environmental injustice take? IV) Case study: Climate ChangeIV) Case study: Climate Change V) Conceptual difficulties –problem of what is the evidence on environmental (in)justice?V) Conceptual difficulties –problem of what is the evidence on environmental (in)justice? VI) How can problems with environmental justice be corrected / prevented?VI) How can problems with environmental justice be corrected / prevented? ConclusionConclusion

3 Introduction What is environmental justice?What is environmental justice? –EPA: “no group of people, including racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic groups, should bear a disproportionate share of the negative environmental consequences resulting from industrial, municipal, and commercial operations; Or the execution of federal, state, local, and tribal programs and policies”.

4 Landmarks in U.S. domestic History 1982 N.C. Warren County1982 N.C. Warren County 1987 United Church of Christ Commission on Racial Justices report1987 United Church of Christ Commission on Racial Justices report 1991 First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, Washington DC.1991 First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, Washington DC EPA created Office of Environmental Justice [exam all agency policies and programs]1992 EPA created Office of Environmental Justice [exam all agency policies and programs] 1994 Clinton’s EJ Executive Order 12898—federal agencies take EJ into account. i.e. be EJ sensitive.1994 Clinton’s EJ Executive Order 12898—federal agencies take EJ into account. i.e. be EJ sensitive EPA outline on federal government’s principle on E.J EPA outline on federal government’s principle on E.J.

5 Development of EJ Movement 1st wave: Wilderness conservation movement [destruction of ecosystem posed by economic expansion] ; late 1960s.1st wave: Wilderness conservation movement [destruction of ecosystem posed by economic expansion] ; late 1960s. 2nd wave: [2-3 on environmental justice and environmental racism] late 1970s2nd wave: [2-3 on environmental justice and environmental racism] late 1970s –collective identity as victims of polluting industry and as ordinary people]

6 II) What forms can environmental injustice take? a) Exposure to risksa) Exposure to risks polluting facilities (poorer regions, developing countries)polluting facilities (poorer regions, developing countries) Waste dumpsWaste dumps Occupational hazardsOccupational hazards Crowding out of environmental space: global warming/climate change?Crowding out of environmental space: global warming/climate change?

7 b) Access to environmental resources – Wilderness syndrome and unmitigated displacements [Conservation refugees – revisit Mark Dowie article] –Commercialization of Forest –Privatization of water

8 c) Interaction of both exposure to risks and denial access to resources Oil and mining companies and the rights of indigenous/local populationsOil and mining companies and the rights of indigenous/local populations Exposure to wildlife hazards [human- wildlife conflict]Exposure to wildlife hazards [human- wildlife conflict]

9 Human-wildlife conflict 7/9/2004 Lions invade Village hit by famine 12/11/2004 Jumbos destroy school property 30/10/2004 Stray Lion kills 50 animals 14/10/2004 Two are in hospital after buffalo attack 15/7/2004 Woman trampled to death by stray jumbo 10/10/2004 Jumbos injure school girl 13/11/2003 Farmer Killed by rogue elephant 2/5/2002 Brave moran hospitalized after killing lion 6/6/2002 Lions Kill 54 sheep in a night attack 1/13/2001 Farmers to tackle wildlife menace 10/10/2000 Buffaloes damage crops 5/7/2000 Government gets ultimatum over Jumbos 3/13/1999 Elephants wreak havoc in Nyeri farms 24/1/1999 Residents told to shoot rampaging elephants

10 Who are the protagonists? -workers vs. industry-workers vs. industry - neighborhoods vs. industry- neighborhoods vs. industry - rural vs. urban- rural vs. urban - State [P.A; investors] vs communities- State [P.A; investors] vs communities -? Gender ??-? Gender ?? - N-S. conflict: Ozone, Rio, Basel- N-S. conflict: Ozone, Rio, Basel [revisit U.S. senator’s claim that U.S. companies’ hurt][revisit U.S. senator’s claim that U.S. companies’ hurt]

11 Case study: Climate Change and [Perceived] Injustice: Problem? [global warming: rising oceans-floods- and drought]Problem? [global warming: rising oceans-floods- and drought] Responsibility?Responsibility? –U.S. = 4% of the world’s population = over 20% of all global emissions = [136 developing countries = 24%]. –Overall, richest 20% = 60% GHG, = > 80% if past contributions considered. [consider: CO2, remains in the atmosphere > 100 years][consider: CO2, remains in the atmosphere > 100 years] – South: average U.S. citizen dumps GHG into the atmosphere = 8 Chinese and 20 Indians. Evaluating injustice claims.Evaluating injustice claims. –Nations facing rising oceans and drought are those least responsible. –Largest contributors of GHG could gain [party to climate problem then?]. [Vulnerability, Responsibility, Mitigation]

12 Competing perceptions of ‘climate (in)justice’ 1992 Earth Summit1992 Earth Summit –common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities’’ E.U. admission of disproportionate contribution to problem.E.U. admission of disproportionate contribution to problem. South vs. United States refused coop. unless poor nations also took remedial measures.South vs. United States refused coop. unless poor nations also took remedial measures. Climate negotiations:Climate negotiations: ‘‘If climate change makes our country uninhabitable, we will march with our wet feet into your living rooms’’ (Bangladeshi rep.: Atiq Rahman).

13 Kyoto, [U.S. clamor for justice?][U.S. clamor for justice?] –President signed Protocol in 1997; U.S. Senate voted 95 to 0 to block any ‘‘unfair’’ treaty that did not include the poor nations.U.S. Senate voted 95 to 0 to block any ‘‘unfair’’ treaty that did not include the poor nations. –Bush administration: Kyoto process ‘‘unfair and ineffective means of addressing global climate change concerns’’ ; ‘‘would cause serious harm to the U.S. economy.’’ ‘‘unfair and ineffective means of addressing global climate change concerns’’ ; ‘‘would cause serious harm to the U.S. economy.’’ Developing countries—including those with intense and weak preferences for climate stability—refused scheduled commitments for emissions reductions in the name of fairness.Developing countries—including those with intense and weak preferences for climate stability—refused scheduled commitments for emissions reductions in the name of fairness. – China speaking: ‘‘In the developed world only two people ride in a car, and yet you want us to give up riding on a bus.’’ [narratives on injustice]

14 III] Conceptual difficulties –problem of what is the evidence on environmental (in)justice? Limitations of founding studies [U.S. env. racism]Limitations of founding studies [U.S. env. racism] –Ahistorical –Questionable measure of social class [race or class] –Epidemiological linkage What what to measureWhat what to measure what should be the standard of comparisonwhat should be the standard of comparison whether and how particular groups will be affectedwhether and how particular groups will be affected “Problem’ of consent [cf. politics of choice in FP, prostitution, sexual orientation]“Problem’ of consent [cf. politics of choice in FP, prostitution, sexual orientation] – Domestic: tribal landfills –International/domestic trade in hazardous waste

15 IV) How can erosion of environmental justice be contained? a) What facilitates Env. Injustice? PovertyPoverty –Commodification of rights Balance of power politicsBalance of power politics –affected groups are minorities and poor [no public policy salience]. –collective action problems Mismanaged affluence [as a matter of course; necessity not sacrifice].Mismanaged affluence [as a matter of course; necessity not sacrifice].

16 b) What can be done? Political processPolitical process –criminalize unregulated disposal [national and international] U.S President’s Executive OrderU.S President’s Executive Order – trade sanctions/restrictions Basel and Bamako conventionsBasel and Bamako conventions –civic consciousness  C.A. Problem, hence electoral connection [P.A; Investors; dumping?] –Incentives to industry for innovations in waste reduction tech. –?? sabotage/protests/civil disobedience [Warren County, N.C.; Niger Delta]

17 b) What can be done? Market – consumer power to alienate culpritsMarket – consumer power to alienate culprits –unfair, but legal labor standards. –corporations involved in displacements of peoples –tourism [human-wildlife conflict-but beneficiaries of wilderness!]

18 b) What can be done? Social engineering:Social engineering: –Adjustment of values “the excessive use of nature and its resources in the North is a principal block to greater justice in the world.... A retreat of the rich from over consumption is thus a necessary first step towards allowing space for improvement of the lives of an increasing number of people.”[ Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, and Energy, in Wuppertal, Germany]


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