Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint Lectures Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Eighth Edition REECE TAYLOR SIMON DICKEY HOGAN Chapter 1 Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko Biology:"— Presentation transcript:
Cells are the structural and functional units of life Cells are the level at which the properties of life emerge.
All cells are enclosed by a membrane that regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its surroundings and use DNA as their genetic information. The structural characteristics of cells
There are two basic forms of cells. 1.Prokaryotic cells were the first to evolve, are simpler, and are usually smaller than eukaryotic cells. 2.Eukaryotic cells are found in plants, animals, fungi, and protists and are subdivided by membranes into various functional compartments, or organelles, including a nucleus that houses the DNA.
The functional characteristics of cells Systems biology is the study of a biological system and the modeling of its dynamic behavior, ranging from the functioning of the biosphere to the complex molecular machinery of an organelle.
Cells illustrate another theme in biology: the correlation of structure and function. Structure is related to function at all levels of biological organization.
The dynamics of ecosystems include two major processes: 1.the recycling of chemical nutrients from the atmosphere and soil through producers, consumers, and decomposers back to the air and soil and 2.the one-way flow of energy through an ecosystem, entering as sunlight and exiting as heat.
Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life In 1859, Charles Darwin published the book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, which articulated two main points. 1. Species living today descended from ancestral species in what Darwin called “descent with modification.” 2. Natural selection is a mechanism for evolution.
Natural selection was inferred by connecting two observations. 1. Individual variation: Individuals in a population vary in their traits, many of which are passed on from parents to offspring. 2. Overproduction of offspring: A population can produce far more offspring than the environment can support.
From these observations, Darwin drew two inferences. 1. Unequal reproductive success: Individuals with heritable traits best suited to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than less well-suited individuals. 2. Accumulation of favorable traits over time: As a result of this unequal reproductive success over many generations, an increasing proportion of individuals in a population will have the advantageous traits.
Darwin realized that numerous small changes in populations as a result of natural selection could eventually lead to major alterations of species. The fossil record provides evidence of such diversification of species from ancestral species.
Science is a way of knowing that stems from our curiosity about ourselves and the world around us. Science is based upon inquiry, the search for information and explanations of natural phenomena. Scientists typically make observations, form hypotheses, proposed explanations for a set of observations, and test them.
Two types of data are frequently collected in scientific investigations. 1. Qualitative data is descriptive. 2. Quantitative data includes numerical measurements.
Scientists use two types of reasoning. 1.Inductive reasoning makes generalizations based on collecting and analyzing a large number of specific observations. 2.Deductive reasoning flows from general premises to predicted and specific results.
We solve everyday problems by using hypotheses. A common example would be the reasoning we use to answer the question, “Why doesn’t a flashlight work?” Two reasonable hypotheses are that 1.the batteries are dead or 2.the bulb is burned out.
Biology, technology, and society are connected in important ways Many issues facing society are related to biology and often involve our expanding technology. The basic goals of science and technology differ. The goal of science is to understand natural phenomena. The goal of technology is to apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose.
Although their goals differ, science and technology are interdependent. Research benefits from new technologies. Technological advances stem from scientific research. Technologies of DNA manipulation are the results of scientific discovery of the structure of DNA.
1.Describe seven properties common to all life. 2.Describe the levels of biological organization from molecules to the biosphere, noting the interrelationships between levels. 3.Define the concept of emergent properties and describe an example of it. 4.Explain why cells are a special level in biological organization. Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 5.Compare the dynamics of nutrients and energy in an ecosystem.
6.Explain how DNA encodes a cell’s information. 7.Compare the three domains of life. 8.Describe the process and products of natural selection. 9.Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative data. 10.Compare the definitions and use of inductive and deductive reasoning in scientific investigations. 11.Distinguish between a scientific theory and a hypothesis.