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Electrical Circuits ALESSANDRO VOLTA (1745-1827) GEORG SIMON OHM (1789-1854) ANDRE MARIE AMPERE (1775-1836) POTENTIAL IN VOLTS! RESISTANCE IN OHMS! CURRENT IN AMPS!

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Sources of Voltage chemical hydroelectric nuclear solar wind geothermal biomass ALLESANDRO VOLTA AND THE ELECTRIC BATTERY A VOLTAGE SOURCE IS LIKE A WATER PUMP Voltage, also known as “electromotive force”, can be create by many sources of energy

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Electrical Current Current is the rate of flow of charge through a conductor. SI units CURRENTEFFECT 0.0001 Athreshold of feeling 0.001 Amild shock felt 0.005 Ashock is painful 0.015 Amuscle control is lost 0.100 Adeath can occur Current flow is defined in the direction of positive charge; since electrons flow in wires, current is opposite the flow of electrons. Small microamp (μA) currents flow through your body, but larger amounts of current are dangerous, even deadly. ION FLOW IN A FLOURESCENT BULB

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Electrical Current Moving electrons collide with vibrating atoms, so they zigzag in a random path, with a slow drift velocity. Potential difference creates an electric field which induces charge to flow in a circuit. The electric field travels at near the speed of light, but the drift velocity is less than a millimeter per second! Electrons do not race around a circuit. click for animation Electrons flow in solid wire circuits. Positive and negative ions flow in batteries (wet and dry cells), and in gas-filled light bulbs.

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Electrical Resistance Resistance is a measurement of a material’s ability to resist the flow of electrical charge. Resistivity depends on the nature of a material. Conductors have low resistivity and insulators have high resistivity. SI units Resistance depends on the material’s type, length, cross- section, and temperature. click for resistance codes resistance applet ΔVΔV I R memory triangle

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Electrical circuit versus a water circuit Ohm’s Law When a device shows a linear relationship between voltage and current, it is said to be “ohmic” OHMICNONOHMIC click for animation click for animation

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Energy, Power, and Cost in Circuits POWER LAW Combine Power Law with Resistance equation (R = ΔV/I) Cost of Electrical Power Example - Find the cost of a 1500 watt hair dryer run for 12 minutes, using the rate of $0.16 per kilowatt hour. click for website

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Kirchhoff’s Rules Rule #1 - The Loop Rule Rule #2 - The Junction Rule The sum of the potential differences (voltages) around any closed loop in a circuit must be zero The current entering a junction in a circuit equals the current leaving the junction A statement of conservation of energy A statement of conservation of charge

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Series Circuits A series circuit has only one pathway around the circuit Rule # 1 means that the voltage across all resistors in series must add up to the source voltage Rule # 2 means that the current through all resistors in series must equal the source current Combine the two equations: click for animation ΔVΔV ΔV1ΔV1 ΔV2ΔV2 ΔV3ΔV3

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Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit has multiple pathways around the circuit Rule # 1 means that the voltage across all resistors in parallel must equal the source voltage Rule # 2 means that the current through all resistors in parallel must add up to the source current Combine the two equations: click for animation click for animation ΔVΔV ΔV1ΔV1 ΔV2ΔV2 ΔV3ΔV3

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Equivalent Resistance

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Holiday Lights Series wiring was often used for Christmas tree lights from 1900-1940 To avoid “one out, all out” modern miniature bulbs use a “jumper” with insulation around it. When the bulb burns out, the jumper wire now has 120 volts across it, so the insulation burns off. The circuit is now complete. Most sets had 8 bulbs sharing 120 volts, so 15 volts each. But, when one bulb burns out they all go out! Most are 50 bulbs in a series “set”, then a few sets in parallel (up to 300), and use little power. Miniature lights became popular by the 1970s Parallel wiring became popular in the 50s and 60s Each bulb has 120 volts and consumes ~10 watts (like a night light). When one bulb burns out, the rest stay on, but they use a lot of power - usually 250 watts per strand - and they get hot! Light emitting diodes (LED) use very little power, typically under 5 watts for 70 lights! Now LED lights are popular and inexpensive

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Applied Circuits Parallel circuits are used for wiring 120 volt outlets. All devices plugged in get 120 volts Each is independent of the others As more devices are used, the total resistance decreases and total current increases. Most circuits are limited to 20 amps. Speakers in series or parallel Batteries in series or parallel

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Applied Circuits What type of wiring scheme is used for these circuits?

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Combination Circuits A combination circuit must be simplified into groups of series and parallel resistors, and then the equivalent for each group is then found. click for animation click for animation

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Combination Circuits The total current in the combination circuit is determined and used to work “backwards” to find other branch currents and resistor voltages. Find current through circuitFind voltage across 3Ω equivalent Find current through 12Ω equivalentFind voltage across 2Ω resistor

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