2Electric Current Section 1 Lab: What do you need to have a circuit? What flows in a circuit?.
334.1 Flow of ChargeCharge flows when there is a potential difference, such as from the positive terminal of a batter to the negative terminal of the batteryRemember, the positive and negative sides of the battery have to do with the excess and shortage of electrons.
4Charge flows until potential is the same If there was not difference in height, then the water would not flow out of the reservoir in the pictureSimilar to heat flow- if there is no difference in temperature than there is not flow of heat
534.2 Electric CurrentElectric current is the flow of charge or the amount of coulombs (charge) that flows past a point in a given amount of timeAmpere (A)is the SI unit of electric current1A= 1C/sNamed after who? What did he do?
6I = Q/tI = symbol for current (SI unit of current = Ampere)Q = symbol for charge (SI unit for charge = Coulomb)t = symbol for time (SI unit for time = second)
7Practice Problem:20 Coulombs of charge passes a point in 10 seconds. What is the current?2 AA current of 100A exists. How many coulombs of charge move past a given point in 5 seconds?500C
8Net charge in a conducting wire is zero What moves? Electrons do not enter/leave a conductor, such as a wire.Electrons transfer energy from one conductor to another.
933.5 Electric PotentialElectric potential is electrical potential energy per charge.Voltage is potential energy per coulomb available to electrons moving between terminals
10Voltage, or electrical potential difference, causes current Volt (V) is the SI unit for potential difference1 Volt = 1 Joule (or energy) per Coulomb (or charge)1V = J/C
11Electric outlets have a potential of 120V Electric outlets have a potential of 120V. This means there is 120 J of energy per coulomb of charge availableThe voltage resulting from rubbing a balloon on hair could be several thousand volts.Then why does putting your finger in an outlet be potentially deadly but static from rubbing a balloon is not?....Answers to come…
1234.3 Voltage SourcesA voltage source is something that provides a potential differenceMust be a continuous potential difference for a current to flow
13Charged metal spheres are not good at maintaining a potential difference, therefore there is not a continuous current.Dry cells, wet cells, and generators are good at maintaining a potential difference, therefore will produce a continuous flow
14Section 2 Lab What is electrical resistance? How does resistance affect current?
1534.4 Electric Resistance Electric resistance is the resistance to flow Current does not stop, only ‘slowed’
16Resistance depends on: Conductivity of the metalLength: longer the wire the more the resistanceDiameter: thicker wires have less resistance than thin wiresTemperature: higher the temperatures, the more resistanceSuperconductors- zero resistance at low temperatures
17R = ρ L/A R = resistance ρ = resistivity L = length A = area
1834.5 Ohm’s Law“for a given resistance, voltage and current are proportional”V= IRV= potential differenceI= currentR= resistance
19Short CircuitingSomething is ‘short-circuited’ when current by passes an area by following the path of least resistance
20If the red wire were not present the bulb would light When the red wire is present, the bulb does not light because the current follows the path of least resistance. It is easier for the current to flow through the wire than the filament because the filament has greater resistance.
21END OF NOTES. Remember: your Homework: -p. 529 #11-13 -p END OF NOTES!! Remember: your Homework: -p. 529 # p. 545 #1-9, read p chpt 35 vocabulary (quiz Monday/Tuesday)
2234.6 Ohm’s LawOhm discovered that current in a circuit is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance in a circuit.V = IRV= voltage (Volts- V)I = current (Ampere- A)R = resistance (Ohm- Ω)
23Ohms Law Practice Problem A CD player with a resistance of 40 ohms has a current of 0.1 amps flowing through it.Sketch the circuit diagramCalculate how many volts supply the CD player.
2534.7 Direct and Alternating Current Direct Current (DC)Electrons always flow in one directionEx: batteryAlternating Current (AC)Electrons flow in one direction and then anotherAble to transmit electrical energy large distances with easy voltage setups and little heat lossEx: power outlets
2634.8 Converting AC to DCDiodes are devices that only allow electrons to flow in one directionHalf of each cycle will pass throughRough DC produced, because it is off half the timeCapacitors used to smooth the effect on changes in electric currentsSee p. 540 Figure 34.12
2734.9 The speed of Electronics in a Circuit Signal of on/off moves at nearly the speed of light, NOT electronsWire acts as a guide or pipe for the electron’s energy (DC)Electrons do not make any notable progress in one direction (AC)
2834.10 The Source of Electrons in a Circuit Source of electrons is the material in the conducting circuitPower outlets are AC, so electrons move back and forthEnergy from outlet is what is transmitted, not electrons
2934.11 Electric Power P= IV P= power I= current V= potential difference Watt is the SI unit of power1W= 1J/sNamed after who? What did he do?
30Sometime use:kWh for kilowatt hour(1000W)(3600s)= 3.1 x 106 J
31Power Practice Problem A microwave is connected to a 120V outlet. It uses 10A of current to heat food.How much power does this machine use?Write this number in terms of kW.
32Series vs Parallel Circuits A series circuit is a circuit where current travels through every wire and device in one path.A parallel circuit is a circuit where current branches off at different points.
33Voltage for a series circuit and a parallel circuit does not change. Current for a series circuit and a parallel circuit changes.
34Kirchoff’s Rules Used for parallel circuits Junction Rule: the amount of charge entering a junction equals the amount of charge leaving a junctionLoop Rule: the amount of voltage drops across a resistors equals the total amount of voltage from the circuit
35Resistance and Circuits Series: as resistors are added to a circuit, total resistance increasesR= R1 + R2 + R3…..Parallel: as resistors are added to a circuit, total resistance decreasesR= 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3…..
36Series Circuit and Resistance Look at a round light bulb and calculate the resistance one round bulb provides.Create a series circuit with the two light bulbs.Calculate the total resistance for the series circuit.What would happen if to the bulb brightness if another light bulb were added?What would the total resistance be?
37Parallel Circuit and Resistance Look at a round light bulb and calculate the resistance one round bulb provides.Create a parallel circuit with the two light bulbs.Calculate the total resistance for the parallel circuit.What would happen if to the bulb brightness if another light bulb were added?What would the total resistance be?