Presentation on theme: "Greek Mythology and the Odyssey. The Odyssey 1.Epic poem- long, narrative poem that tells about the adventures of a hero who reflects the ideals and values."— Presentation transcript:
Greek Mythology and the Odyssey
The Odyssey 1.Epic poem- long, narrative poem that tells about the adventures of a hero who reflects the ideals and values of a nation or race. 2.Composed sometime around 800 B.C. – 600 B.C. 3.Composed by Homer a. Homer did not create the Odyssey, he told the story orally. However, Homer was rumored to be a blind storyteller. He would NOT have been able to write. b. The Odyssey was being told orally through storytellers long before Homer wrote it down (?)
Characteristics of the EPIC: 1.Has an epic hero 2. Often written in poetry form but not always 3. Often includes myths, legends, and history 4. Usually has a serious tone and language 5. Deals with a quest 6. Often based on some truths 7. Includes epithets & flashbacks 8. Usually involves a battle and oftentimes a single combat like Achilles fighting Hector or the final showdown between Harry and Lord Voldemort Other National EPICS are: Greek = The Iliad by Homer Spanish = El Cid Roman = The Aeneid by Virgil American = Forest Gump English = Harry Potter Series Percy Jackson & Olympians Series
Epic Hero 1. A larger-than-life figure, usually male, who embodies the ideals of a nation or race. 2. Take part in long, dangerous adventures and accomplish great deeds that require courage and superhuman strength. 3. Often, the divine world of the gods or other supernatural forces will interfere with the human world of the epic hero. Some epic heroes: - Harry Potter - Frodo from Lord of the Rings - Luke Skywalker from Star Wars
Epic Simile Simile- comparison of two unlike things that uses the word “like” or “as.” Epic Simile- an elaborate, more involved version of a regular simile. - great length and detail - extends for several lines - also called the “Homeric Simile” Just as an angler poised on a jutting rock flings his treacherous bait in the offshore swell, whips his long rod—hook sheathed in an oxhorn lure— and whisks up little fish he flips on the beach-break, writhing, gasping out their lives... so now they writhed, gasping as Scylla swung them up her cliff and there at her cavern’s mouth she bolted them down raw— screaming out, flinging their arms down toward me, lost in that mortal struggle...
Epithets Epithets- brief, descriptive phrases that helped to characterize a particular person or thing. - repetition of a phrase Odysseus is described as: “master mariner” “old contender” “man of twists and turns” “great tactician” - remember: he initiated the idea of the Trojan horse- source of the Greeks defeating Troy
The Iliad and the Trojan War Paris, Prince of Troy and son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba, fell in love with another man’s wife and took her back to his kingdom of Troy with the interference of the gods, one goddess in particular Helen, known as the most beautiful woman and the face that launched a 1,000 ships “runs away” with Paris and her absence enrages her husband Trojan War may have occurred around 1200 B.C. and established the background for Homer’s epics The mini-version of the Legend is
Family Loyalty—How far would a person go for his brother? Menalaus, King of Sparta, is upset and seeks the advice of his brother Agamemnon, King of Mycenae, who is power hungry and wants control of all lands, especially Troy; he convinces his jilted brother to go after his wife and wage a war against Troy to get her back and regain some of the dignity his brother has lost. Together they utilize their power as kings to gather as many great warriors to fight for their cause. Agamemnon
The war lasted 10 years, during which time many heroes emerged. The war lasted 10 years, during which time many heroes emerged. Fighting for the Greeks ( Under rule of King Agamemnon) Fighting for the Greeks ( Under rule of King Agamemnon) Odysseus (the hero of The Odyssey) – Ajax (almost giant like warrior who was unable to kill the greatest Trojan warrior but wounded him) – Achilles (the Greek hero of The Iliad and the greatest warrior) AJAX
Fighting for the Trojans –Brothers Prince Hector and Prince Paris Fighting for the Trojans –Brothers Prince Hector and Prince Paris Prince Hector (the greatest Trojan warrior) defends his country to the death Prince Paris—the one who brought Helen to his kingdom and brought destruction to his home
The Iliad and the Trojan War The Iliad The Iliad – Homer’s 1 st Epic – Serves as a prequel to The Odyssey – The epic only deals with about 20 days in the 10 th and final year of the Trojan War – Homer concentrates on one main Greek hero, Achilles, and one main opposing hero for the Trojans, Hector. – As the epic begins, Achilles is furious with King Agamemnon over a slave girl, Briseis, and sulking in his tent, refusing to fight.**The epic begins in the middle or in media res** – The Trojans start winning and beating back the Greeks. – But, when Hector kills Achilles’ best friend, Patroclus, Achilles becomes enraged and returns to battle for the sole purpose of destroying Hector. – After Hector’s death, Achilles is killed by Paris, but the Trojans never recover from the loss of Hector and finally, Troy falls.
The Horse That Ended The War After Hector is killed, unless the Greeks get inside the walls of Troy, the war would most likely continue. After Hector is killed, unless the Greeks get inside the walls of Troy, the war would most likely continue. Odysseus, King of Ithaca and a “master strategist” devises the plan of building a giant Trojan horse to represent a gift to the Trojans. Odysseus, King of Ithaca and a “master strategist” devises the plan of building a giant Trojan horse to represent a gift to the Trojans. As the Trojans believe that the Greeks have given up and decided to go back home, they wheel the large wooden horse inside the walls of Troy. As the Trojans believe that the Greeks have given up and decided to go back home, they wheel the large wooden horse inside the walls of Troy. While the Trojans are sleeping, after a night of partying and celebrating the end of the war, several Greeks, led by Odysseus, crawl out of the horse, open the gates, and after a massive amount of bloodshed, Troy burns and the Trojan War ends While the Trojans are sleeping, after a night of partying and celebrating the end of the war, several Greeks, led by Odysseus, crawl out of the horse, open the gates, and after a massive amount of bloodshed, Troy burns and the Trojan War ends
Hubris is excessive pride or arrogance Hubris is excessive pride or arrogance –It can lead to rash behavior and to not thinking clearly in serious situations HUBRIS AS A CHARACTER FLAW AGAMEMNON—King of Mycenae— Allows his pride to get the better of him when he refuses to give Chryseis back causing disease and fire to rain down on the Greeks, courtesy of the god Apollo. Once he does he give her back, he takes someone else’s girl causing another big problem for the Greeks. ACHILLES—He allows his pride of losing his slave girl Briseis and love interest to Agamemnon get the best of him and refuses to continue fighting at Troy….until his dear friend is slain by the Trojan Prince Hector causing his desire for revenge and eventually his death all because of pride Odysseus—Hero in The Odyssey also exhibits hubris which angers the gods and leads to many difficulties and hardships for him.
What is the Odyssey about? - Tells of Odysseus’ adventures as he makes his way home from Troy He was gone for a total of 20 years 10 years at war and 10 more years trying to get home - He has a fleet of 12 ships carrying about 720 men - Back at home (Ithaca) - Penelope (wife of Odysseus) and Telemachus (son of Odysseus) are waiting for Odysseus’ return while suitors have taken over Ithaca, hoping that she will marry one of them - Odysseus encounters many mythical beings and has to fight his own personal “demons” and overcome his own character flaws during his return home