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Steroid for Bacterial meningitis 李慧玲 高雄市立小港醫院 神經科.

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Presentation on theme: "Steroid for Bacterial meningitis 李慧玲 高雄市立小港醫院 神經科."— Presentation transcript:

1 Steroid for Bacterial meningitis 李慧玲 高雄市立小港醫院 神經科

2 臨床問題 P (patient) : Becterial meningitis I (intervention) : Steroid C (comparison) : Placebo O (outcome) : Efficacy

3 背景說明 Steroid 在臨床上已被廣泛地應用,它具有抗 炎、止痛及減緩異常血腦障壁之微血管的通透, 以及降低顱內壓等作用。 治療細菌性腦膜炎,雖然有著抗生素的介入治 療,但卻仍具高死亡率,且造成嚴重的後遺 症,,不僅是一個衝擊,也是我們要去突破的 瓶頸。

4 背景說明 感染性疾病有著強烈的地域性特色,在西方國 家細菌性腦膜炎最常見到的致病菌是鏈球菌 (Streptococcus Pneumoniae) 、李斯特菌 (Listeria monocytogenes) ,或是奈瑟氏菌 (Neisseria meningitids) ;我國則是鏈球菌 (Streptococcus Pneumoniae) 和取而代之的克雷伯氏菌 (Klebsiella Pneumoniae) 為主。 至於 Steroid 針對 Bacterial meningitis 的使用,目 前仍受爭議,至今尚無定論,但在有些病人身 上是可以加速改善症狀,但對於減少後遺症則 很難說。

5 期待目標 提供有用的文獻資料,期待進一步釐清 Steroid 使用於 Bacterial meningitis 的角色 及療效。

6 搜尋步驟 - 1 Cochrane Library : Key Word : Combine ‘bacterial meningitis' AND 'steroid‘ Found :【 Reviews : 1 篇】【 DARE : 1 篇】 【 CENTRAL : 7 篇】 Combine 'bacterial meningitis' AND 'dexamethasone‘ Found :【 Reviews : 1 篇】【 DARE : 3 篇】 【 CENTRAL : 23 篇】

7 搜尋步驟 - 2 EBMR- ACP Journal Club Key Word : Combine ‘bacterial meningitis' AND 'steroid‘ Found : 0 篇 Combine 'bacterial meningitis' AND 'dexamethasone‘ Found : 2 篇

8 搜尋步驟 - 3 NGC ( National Guideline Clearinghouse ) Key Word : Combine ‘bacterial meningitis' AND 'steroid‘ Found : 1 篇 Combine 'bacterial meningitis' AND 'dexamethasone‘ Found : 1 篇

9 搜尋步驟 - 4 PubMed Key Word : Combine ‘bacterial meningitis' AND 'steroid‘ Found : 9 篇 Combine 'bacterial meningitis' AND 'dexamethasone‘ Found : 8 篇

10 搜尋步驟 - 5 MEDLINE Key Word : Combine ‘bacterial meningitis' AND 'steroid‘ Found : 10 篇 Combine 'bacterial meningitis' AND 'dexamethasone‘ Found : 8 篇

11 搜尋步驟 - 6 EBM ONLINE Key Word : Combine ‘bacterial meningitis' AND 'steroid‘ Found : 2 篇 Combine 'bacterial meningitis' AND 'dexamethasone‘ Found : 2 篇

12 結果摘要 Eighteen studies involving 1853 people were included. Overall, adjuvant corticosteroids were associated with lower case fatality (relativerisk (RR) 0.76, 95% condence intervals (CI) 0.59 to 0.98) and lower rates of both severe hearing loss (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.60) and long-term neurological sequelae (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.99). In children, corticosteroids reduced severe hearing loss in bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.62), as well as in meningitis caused by other bacteria than H. influenzae (RR 0.42, 95%CI 0.20 to 0.89). van de Beek D, de Gans J, McIntyre P, Prasad K. Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 3.

13 結果摘要 In adults, there was a reduction in case-fatality (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.78), however there were few data. Adverse events were not increased signicantly with the use of corticosteroids. Adjuvant corticosteroids are benecial in the treatment of children with acute bacterial meningitis. The limited data available in adults shows a trend in favour of adjuvant corticosteroids but a denite recommendation must await more studies. van de Beek D, de Gans J, McIntyre P, Prasad K. Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 3.

14 結果摘要 7 RCTs ( 848 p’t in total ): 1. In Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis, dexamethasone reduced severe hearing loss. (pooled OR0.31,95%CI:0.14,0.69) 2. In pneumoccal meningitis, the pooled odds ratio for severe hearing loss was (95%CI:0.17, 1.46) 3. Limiting dexamethasone therapy to 2 days may be optimal.

15 結果摘要 7 RCTs ( 848 p’t in total ): 4. The available evidence on adjunctive dexamethasone therapy confirms benefit for Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis and, if commenced with or before parenteral antibiotics, suggests benefit for pneumoccal meningitis in childhood. P B McIntyre, C S Berkey, S M King, U B Schaad, T Kilpi, G Y Kanra, C M Perez.Dexamethasone as adjunctive therapy in bacterial meningitis: a meta- analysis of randomized clinical trials since 1988 (Structured abstract). The Cochrane Database of Systematic DARE. 2000

16 結果摘要 1 RCT ( 301 p’t ) : 1. Early treatment with dexamethasone improves the outcome in adults with acute bacterial meningitis and does not increase the risk of G-I bleeding. 1 double blind placebo control study(40 p’t ): 1. Dexamethasone was given in dose of 0.6mg/kg/day in divided dose, for first 4 days of therapy. 2. First dose of dexamethasone was given 15 minutes prior to first dose dose of ceftriaxone. 3. Neurological complications and hearing loss were more common and severe in placebo group as compared to the dexamethasone group (p<0.05).

17 結果摘要 1 Controlled Clinical Trial (68 p’t): 1. Dexamethasone was given in dose of 0.6mg/kg/day in divided dose, for first 4 days of therapy. 2. Mortality was lower in the group treated with dexamethasone but the difference was not statistically significant. 3. Dexamethasone should be administered to all adultes patients with acute bacterial meningitis.

18 Neonates At present, there are insufficient data to make a recommendation on the use of adjunctive dexamethasone in neonates with bacterial meningitis. (C-I) 結果摘要

19 Infants and Children 1. Despite some variability in result of published trials, the Practice Guideline Committee believes the available evidence supports the use of adjunctive dexamethasone in infants and children with H. influenzae type b meningitis. (A-I) 2. Dexamethasone should be initiated min prior to, or at least concomitant with, the first antimicrobial dose, at 0.15 mg/kg every 6 h for 2- 4 days.

20 結果摘要 Infants and Children 3. Adjunctive dexamethasone should not be given to infants and children who have already received antimicrobial therapy, because administration of dexamethasone in this circumstance is unlikely to improve patient outcome. (A-I) 4. In infants and children with pneumococcal meningitis, there is controversy concerning the use of adjunctive dexamethasone therapy. (C-II)

21 結果摘要 Adults 1. The Practice Guideline Committee recommends use of dexamethasone (0.15 mg/kg every 6 h for 2-4 days with the first dose administered min before, or at least concomitant with, the first dose of antimicrobial therapy) in adults with suspected or proven pneumococcal meningitis. (A-I) 2. Some experts would only administer adjunctive dexamethasone if the patient had moderate-to-severe disease (Glasgow Coma Scale score <11).

22 結果摘要 Adults 3. However, the Practice Guideline Committee thinks that adjunctive dexamethasone should be initiated in all adult patients with suspected or proven pneumococcal meningitis, because assessment of the score may delay initiation of appropriate therapy. 4. Dexamethasone should only be continued if the CSF Gram stain reveals gram-positive diplococci, or if blood or CSF cultures are positive for S. pneumoniae.

23 結果摘要 Adults 4. Adjunctive dexamethasone should not be given to adult patients who have already received antimicrobial therapy, because administration of dexamethasone in this circumstance is unlikely to improve patient outcome. (A-I) 5. The data are inadequate to recommend adjunctive dexamethasone to adults with meningitis caused by other bacterial pathogens, although some authorities would initiate dexamethasone in all adults, because the etiology of meningitis is not always ascertained at initial evaluation. (B-III)

24 結果摘要 Pneumococcal Meningitis 1. The Practice Guideline Committee recommends that adjunctive dexamethasone be administered to all adult patients with pneumococcal meningitis, even if the isolate is subsequently found to be highly resistant to penicillin and cephalosporins (B-III). 2. Careful observation and follow-up are critical to determine whether dexamethasone is associated with adverse clinical outcome.

25 結果摘要 Pneumococcal Meningitis 3. For data on outcome in patients with meningitis caused by resistant pneumococcal isolates, case reports and small case series may help ascertain whether dexamethasone is harmful to these patients. 4. Furthermore, in patients with suspected pneumococcal meningitis who receive adjunctive dexamethasone, addition of rifampin to the empirical combination of vancomycin plus a third-generation cephalosporin may be reasonable pending culture results and in vitro susceptibility testing (B-III).

26 後記 The available evidence supports the use of adjunctive dexamethasone in infants and children with H. influenzae type b meningitis. ( 0.15 mg/kg every 6 h for 2-4 days) Dexamethasone in adults with the adjunctive dexamethasone be administered to all adult patients with suspected or proven pneumococcal meningitis. ( 0.15 mg/kg every 6 h for 2-4 days)

27 後記 For children and adults with acute bacterial meningitis, adjuvant dexamethasone therapy reduces mortality, hearing loss, and long term neurological sequelae. In patients with acute bacterial meningitis, adjunctuve treatment with dexamethasone was more effective than placebo in improving disability and reducing death.

28 後記 Dexamethasone should now be considered the standard of care, provided that it is initiated before or at the same as antibiotics. Adjunctive dexamethasone should not be given to infants, children and adult patients who have already received antimicrobial therapy, because administration of dexamethasone in this circumstance is unlikely to improve patient outcome.

29 Thanks for your attention


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