Presentation on theme: "Supplemental Bullying Prevention"— Presentation transcript:
1Supplemental Bullying Prevention Lesson PlansThis training is provided to assist with implementation of the DARE Supplemental Lessons.(Allow approximately 60 to 90 minutes for this background segment of the training).
2Introduction Participants will: gain an awareness of personal attitudes about children who bully and bully/victim (target) violence;be able to define bully/victim (target) violence and learn to recognize bullying tendencies;explore intervention methods for bullying behaviors;Tonight / Today we are going to explore some strategies to deal with bullying behavior. I want you to take a moment now and think about how many children that you work with who you would consider might bully others. Now think about how many victims (targets) you think you could identify in your classrooms.
3Introduction, cont.learn strategies to empower students to avoid becoming victims (targets) of bullying behavior;learn strategies to help empower the victims (targets) of bullying behavior to remove themselves as targets;develop strategies to redirect and change the bullying behaviorThere are a few things that students can do to disengage from being targeted by those who bully. We will talk about some of those strategies at the end of the presentation. The bottom line is that it takes adults in the school to make a difference in the lives of those students who are bullied. After all, how many of you think that if kids who are bullied could get out of being bullied on their own, they would have done that already?
4OverviewChildren who bully others can turn into antisocial adults and are far more likely than others to commit crimes, batter their spouses, abuse their children __ and produce another generation of children that bully.If you don’t get anything else out of the presentation today, please understand this concept. Children who bully are much more likely than others to commit crimes, batter their spouses, abuse their children and SADLY, produce another generation of children who bully.How many of you have been in law enforcement long enough to see the “cycle.” Maybe you dealt with “Dad” when he was a boy and now you have to deal with his son. You may have said, “If you think the Dad was a problem, you should see his son!” It takes a very specific set of conditions to produce a child who can start fights, threaten or intimidate a peer, and actively inflict pain upon others.Bullying causes a great deal of misery to others, and its effects on victims (targets) last for decades, even a lifetime.The person hurt most by bullying is the bully himself, though it may not be obvious at first, the negative effects increase over time.Most bullies take a downwardly spiraling course through life, their behavior interferes with: learning, friendships, work, intimate relationships, income and mental health.
5Bullying What? When? Who? Why? Where? How? I want you to think of a student who you have worked with this year or last year that bullies other students. Now what did that kid do, or keep doing that made you think of him / her as someone who bullies. When did they do these things? Where did they do these things? How did they get these things done? Did they have someone help them by creating a distraction that drew your attention some other place while they did the dirty work?How did they bully? The last question is why? Many used to believe that the reason kids bullied others is because they have poor or low self esteem. That belief is not supported by research. In fact, many of the kids who bully enjoy very high self-esteem and are among the most popular kids in school—especially in lower grades.We will look at the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of Bullying that will serve as the foundation and background for understanding bullying. These same concepts will be used in the student lessons.How?
6What is bullying?Bullying is any ongoing physical or verbal mistreatment where there is:an imbalance of power andthe victim (target) is exposed repeatedly to negative actions on the part of one or more other students. (Olweus 1986, 1991 and 1993)Dr. Dan Olweus is a research psychologist from the University of Bergen, Norway. Olweus is noted as the “Father of Bullying Research.” He describes “Negative Action,” when someone intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another.Negative actions can be carried out by words (verbally), for instance, by threatening, taunting, teasing, and calling names. It is also a negative action when someone hits, kicks, pushes, pinches, or restrains another by physical contact.It is possible to carry out negative actions without using words or making physical contact. This is accomplished by making faces, dirty gestures, intentionally excluding someone from a group, or refusing to comply with another person’s wishes.Negative actions, in order to be considered bullying behavior, are carried out repeatedly and over time.Bullying is displayed in two forms: Direct and Indirect Bullying.
7This slide is taken from a police officers training course on domestic violence. The two words in the middle that drive domestic violence forward are the same two words that drive bullying forward. There are some parallels with domestic violence and bullying that we will begin to see during this presentation.
8Direct bullyingDirect bullying is bullying that results in relatively open attacks on a victim (target).Direct Bullying Behavior is the easiest to recognize and boys typically display this type of bullying behavior. According to Toronto psychologist Debra Pepler, Ph.D. at York University, the average episode of bullying behavior lasts only 37 seconds. Teachers noticed and intervened in only one out of 25 episodes.What is puzzling is that so many times the victim (target) tries to “protect the bullying behavior” by telling the teacher “Oh no, we’re not fighting, we’re just having fun.”Does that answer seem at all the same as what you might hear from the victim of domestic violence? In both cases, the victim begins to believe that help is not coming and that they had better try to handle the situation on their own. Victims often believe if they can make themselves look good in the eyes of the abuser, that perhaps the abuse will stop. Does the abuse stop, or does it just continue to a higher level of control?
9Direct bullying z Physical Ø Hitting, kicking, shoving, spitting… z Verbal Ø Taunting, teasing, racial slurs, verbal sexual harassmentDirect bullying happens when the student who bullies DIRECTLY attacks the student who is being bullied.These are some of the ways that it is accomplished.z Non-verbal Ø Threatening, obscene gestures
10Indirect bullyingIndirect bullying takes the form of social isolation and intentional exclusion from a group. This form of bullying is used more often by girls.Girls tend to bully their victims (targets) through “relational aggression,” by hurting others through damaging or manipulating their relationships in aversive ways, like:Spreading vicious rumors in their peer group to get even with someone so that other people will reject that person.Telling others to stop liking someone in order to get even with him or her.Trying to control or dominate a person by using social exclusion as a form of retaliation. “You can’t come to my birthday party unless you do…”Threatening to withdraw friendship in order to get one’s way. “I won’t be your friend if…”Giving someone the silent treatment.
11Indirect bullyingz Physical Ø Getting another person to assault someonez Verbal Ø Spreading rumorsNow look at what Indirect Bullying looks like.z Non-verbal Ø Deliberate exclusion from a group or activity
12One student out of seven According to the National Association of School Psychologists, about one in seven school children — about five million kids — have either been a bully or a victim (target).14% are bullies or victims (targets) now and then9% are regularly victimized7% bully others regularly1.6% are both bullies and victims (targets)65-70% are not affectedBullying can start at any age, but typically it begins to escalate in the third grade, peaks around eighth grade, and tapers off by high school.In a recent survey, Frank J. Barone, Ed.D., adjunct professor of education at the State University of New York at Oswego found that 58% of students had actually stayed home from school at least once because they were victims (targets) of child peer abuse (bullying)The American Medical Association reports that 33% to 44% of male teens say they’ve been slapped, hit, or punched at school.
13Bullying on the way to and from school The school is without a doubt the place where most bullying occurs:Elementary students were two times more likely to be bullied at school than on the way to and from school.Middle school students were three times more likely to be bullied at school than on the way to and from school.Many people assume that most bullying occurs on the way to and from school rather than at school. Bullying is much more likely to occur at school rather than on the way to and from school. The reason is there is 7 hours in a day at school to get to someone.
14Bullying during recess and lunch time The greater the number of teachers supervising during break periods, the lower the level of bully/victim (target) problems in the school.The most likely places for bullying problems to occur are at recess and breaks. When students who have aggressive tendencies are left unsupervised - bullying behavior emerges.Our society tends to promote aggressive behavior. It is taken to be a positive characteristic when a child is able to look after himself among his peers, who is not timid socially and is ready to fight.Teachers who do not intervene in bullying situations give a clear message that bullying is acceptable at school.
15Profile of a typical victim (target) May be physically weaker than their peers (applies particularly to boys)May have body anxiety — afraid of getting hurt.Bullies tend to zero in on children who appear vulnerable for some reason. Victims (targets) are usually passive, not as popular as other children, anxious, sensitive, or any combination of characteristics that cause them to stand out in some way.
16The passive victim (target) The passive victim (target) seems to signal to others that they are insecure and worthless individuals who will not retaliate if they are attacked or insulted.The passive victim (target) has a negative attitude toward violence and the use of violent means, but when pushed to their “end” they can often be the most unpredictable and dangerous of all. They may resort to equalizing their situation with a weapon with the end result being suicide.These children are anxious or submissive and are usually physically weaker than their peers.But even the most passive child won’t be victimized unless there’s a bully in the room.STORY:In the September 2, 1999 K.C. Star there is a story about Andrew Rudy who started his freshman year at Freeburg, IL High School. After school began, several upperclassmen locked 14-year-old Andrew Rudy in his locker and forced him to make derogatory comments about himself before freeing him. Andrew killed himself on Aug. 26th by shooting himself to death.
17A passive victim can be one of the most dangerous children you have to deal with! Much has been said about the school shootings at Littleton, Colorado. One news report stated that one of the “shooters” said to a student before they killed him, “This is what you get for the way you treated us.”Sad, but true! No one will ever know what was in the mind of the shooter at Littleton that said this, but in some way it seems that he justified himself in killing others because he felt he was a victim.The Secret Service School Shooter Report identified 65% of school shooters as victims of bullying.
18The provocative victim (target) Provocative victims (targets) may be physically weaker than their peers (if they are boys) and have “body anxiety.”May be hot-tempered and attempt to fight back when attacked or insulted.May be hyperactive, restless, and possibly offensive because of irritating habits.May be actively disliked by adults including the teacher.May themselves try to bully weaker students.The provocative victim bullies a little, but is bullied by others much more often. For that reason, they are referred to as a victim rather than someone who bullies.These students often have problems with concentration, and behave in ways that may cause irritation and tension around them. Some of these students can be characterized as hyperactive. It is not uncommon that their behavior provokes many students in the class thus resulting in negative reactions from a large part of, or even the entire class.Special attention should be paid to those students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is important to talk with the teacher about strategies to deal with any students with learning disabilities and what, if any, modifications are in place.
19Profile of children who bully Children who bully tend to be very aggressive toward their peersThey are often aggressive toward adults, including teachers and parentsThey are characterized by impulsivity and a strong need to dominate othersThey usually have little anxiety and relatively good self esteem.According to Richard E. Tremblay, Ph.D., a psychologist at the University of Montreal, aggressive tendencies is pretty much a done deal by age two. Physical aggression builds up from nine months and reaches its highest frequency at age two. Normally, a child learns that it hurts when aggressed. Adults intervene and indicate that it is the wrong behavior. Language skills increase, and physical aggression decreases.Bullies have a kind of paranoia. They perceive provocation where it does not exist. If someone bumps them and they drop a book bullies don’t see it as an accident; they see it as a call to arms. These children act aggressively because they process social information inaccurately. They endorse revenge.
20Profile of children who bully, cont. Children who bully are of average popularity and often surrounded by two to three friends who support themPopularity of bullying children decreases in upper gradesChildren who bully have a strong need for power or dominance; they seem to enjoy being “in control” and need to subdue othersGetting a response is the bully’s ultimate reward. It seems as if bullies have a low threshold of irritability. They seem to exist in a state readiness.
21Children who bully and anger management Children who bully usually are not anger driven. They bully because…they derive pleasure and a sense of power from what they are doing; andbully/victim situations are not amenable to nor can they be resolved through peer mediation.Bully / Victim violence always requires adult intervention, such intervention, however, rarely occurs. Consequently, this type of violence is increasingly common in schools. It is actually spawned and sustained by entitlement and tolerance.Peer mediation operates on the principle that both have done something a little wrong and therefore can “mediate” a solution. However, in a bully-victim conflict, could it be possible that the victim did absolutely nothing wrong, and the child who bullies did everything wrong? How can kids mediate this? They can’t! Peer mediation is great as long as the mediators stay within the boundaries of mediation and leave more dangerous complicated issues such as bullying to the adults.
22Controlling bullying behavior through environmental control Eliminate the attitudes of entitlement and tolerance from responsible adults.This is only accomplished when all the adults in a school collectively agree to prevent or intervene with any student who is threatening to use or is using violence.Bully / Victim violence has a spreading effect. The tolerance of Bully / Victim violence in a school makes victims of everyone and creates more enablers than other types of violence. Moreover, it often incites other students who might not otherwise act in violent ways to become violent because they perceive tolerance as permission to be violent.
23Controlling bullying behavior through environmental control Eliminate the attitudes of entitlement and tolerance from responsible adults.This is only accomplished when all the adults in a school collectively agree to prevent or intervene with any student who is threatening to use or is using violence.Kids who bully recognize how much they can get away with. Each teacher tolerates a certain amount of bullying behavior in their classroom.
24Controlling bullying behavior through environmental control Eliminate the attitudes of entitlement and tolerance from responsible adults.This is only accomplished when all the adults in a school collectively agree to prevent or intervene with any student who is threatening to use or is using violence.The problem is that when we tolerate a behavior long enough—kids begin to feel entitled to continue the behavior.
25Meetings with Victims of bullying Try to put the child at easeCollect information about the incidentEncourage the child to express his or her emotionsProvide support and encouragementHow to talk with the victim of bullying. Once again, this should be done in conjunction with the school staff, and not in isolation.
26Meetings with Victims of bullying (cont.) Discuss a safety planInform the child of your intended actions with the children who bully in coordination with the teacher or counselorHave the child agree to report future bullying—establish a “Code Word”Gauge the child’s distress and refer to a teacher or counselorPlan a follow-up meeting, if appropriateA safety plan is usually developed by the school counselor. Make sure that you coordinate any discussion or action plan with the teacher, counselor, or administrator.
27Meetings with children who Bully Ask another adult to be presentTalk with the children who bully separately, in rapid sequenceBegin with the “followers” if more than one child is bullyingPlan a follow-up meeting, if neededAny meetings or plan should be held with the teacher, counselor or administrator.
28Points to communicate to children who Bully Make the message absolutely clear“We don’t accept bullying behavior in our school or class.”No further bullying will be allowedYour behavior will be closely monitored by school personnelProvide the bullying student a quiet place to cool downContact school personnelStatements to use when communicating with a student you observed bullying another. Don’t do this in the class in front of other students. Rather, confer with the teacher about an appropriate time and place to communicate with the student.
29When there are suspicions of bullying... Intensify your observations of the possible victimConfer with colleaguesCollect information from studentsDon’t waste time trying to observe the students who bully. Watch the victim. Kids who bully will attack the victim when they think no one is watching and then you can catch them in the act.
30Strategies for empowering the victim (target), cont. Encourage peer group developmentUnderstand that “I” statements have limitedvalue with bullying situations.I feel (an emotion)When (say what behavior bothers you)Because (say why the behavior upsets you)I would like (say what solution you would like to try)“I Statements” don’t always work with bullying. “I” statements are more effective in resolving conflicts rather than bullying situations. This will be addressed in the second bullying lesson.
31Children who are best at diffusing a bullying situation are... children who feel valued and have some confidence that they can defend themselvesKids who are best at defending themselves—know what to do, and how to make safe reports to an adult. They defend themselves by using their brain, not their fists!
32Help for the victim (target) of bullying behavior Stress the six steps to disengage from a child who bullies...Ignore them (when possible)Tell them you don’t like itMove away from them toward witnessesAsk them to stop (locate more witnesses)Tell them firmly to stop (locate more witnesses)Tell an adultDo not tell or teach a child to fight back. Fighting back is the worst defense. In most instances, victimized children really are weaker and smaller than the bully-thus their fears of losing these fights may be quite real.In addition, the student who bullies usually has two or more friends that act as witnesses to blame the victim and even have them arrested for battery.The victim of bullying reduces the chance of physical bullying by moving to an area where there are other witnesses. The kids who bully may follow the victim but are less likely going to become physical.Next, the student who is being bullied remembers who the witnesses are and makes a report to the teacher stating what happened this second time and who the witnesses are that would have seen this happen.
33Poor solutions for addressing bullying Encouraging victims to handle it on their ownTelling victims to fight backEstablishing zero tolerance policies for bullyingFocusing on building the self-esteem of children who bullyNot recommended solutions. These solutions usually make bullying a worse problem than if nothing was done at all.
34Take a hard look at yourself Self evaluationTake a hard look at yourselfDo you bully in the classroom?Do you frequently criticize your students?Is your tone of voice unnecessarily harsh?Do you teach and model the art of negotiation?Do you remember having a teacher that was a bully? If you do, those probably aren’t pleasant memories.It is said that children model what they are shown. We need to be good role models.
35The “Teachable Moment” Is it safe to intervene?Stop the bullyingSupport the victimName the behavior as “bullying”Refer to the school rulesImpose immediate consequences (if appropriate)Empower the bystanderSteps to take when you or a teacher observes bullying behaviors. These should be discussed with the teacher or counselor prior to any action being taken.
36Follow-Up... Follow school bullying procedures Report the incident to colleagues—teacher, counselor, etc.Begin by talking with the victim, then with the children who bullyFollow-up with the parties later, if appropriateSteps to take to investigate a bullying situation. It is important to know if the school has a bullying plan or procedures that are to be followed. Discussions should be held with school staff and administration to determine appropriate steps to be taken when bullying behavior is identified.
37Summary Bullying can best be tackled with a school-wide program. To recognize there is a problem is the first step __ to do something about it requires commitment.“Easy to say __ hard to do.”
38Supplemental Lesson One During this part of the training we are going to look at the students worksheets. We are not going to model the lesson for you step by step, but rather facilitate a discussion as to why there are certain “Key Points” made during the lesson and why.Supplemental Lesson One
39Lesson One Read and respond to the following questions: What are the objectives of this lesson and how does each activity develop these concepts?What do you want students to know and be able to do at the end of the lesson?List specific examples of how you will use facilitation skills in this lesson.During this part of the training we are going to look at the students worksheets. We are not going to model the lesson for you step by step, but rather facilitate a discussion as to why there are certain “Key Points” made during the lesson and why.R
40Bullying Think, Pair, Share Activity: Group Wrap-Up Facilitation Key Concepts and Activities
41Why do you think this slide is the opening overhead used for the training? This provides an opportunity to engage the students with their understanding and then establish a base of knowledge.Start with the word What? And notice that the students handout starts with the definition of “What is Bullying”. This slide can accomplish two purposes. First, we can go around the circle with the students and ask if they know of someone who bullies. What did they do that made you think of them? When did they happen? Where did these things occur? How did this person bully another? Who else saw this happen? Why do you think someone would do this to someone else?You can use this slide and point to the word “What?” and ask a student to read the text for that word. Next, point to “When?” and ask another student to read that text and so on.
42Why are kids asked to work with a partner on this activity? Why do we have the students work with partners within a 4-minute time slot to locate as many words as possible on this activity?We want the kids to realize that some tasks are impossible without help. Kids who are being bullied typically have no friends and thus, no protective factors in their life. All students must realize that the kids who are bullied are facing impossible odds of escaping from bullying on their own. This is our first attempt during the lesson to create empathy for the students who are being bullied.This is an important time to re-connect with our DARE lessons and talk quickly about “Strength in Numbers.”
43Why do we have the students “Find” all the words in the Word Search BEFORE we process this activity? Why are these words important?We ask the students to locate all the Word Search words before we go on so we can regain their attention, and focus on the why they think these words might be important in our lesson.The highlighted words should be discussed and clear understanding of these terms determined prior to moving further into the lesson.
44Why do students need to be able to recognize the two basic types of bullying? There is much confusion about bullying among students and staff in school. Some authors try to divide bullying up into many categories. This slide brings the students to a greater understanding about the two types of bullying.Direct Bullying is when the student who bullies directly attacks the student who is being bullied.Indirect Bullying is all other types of bullying that are directed toward the victim in subtle and indirect ways. This may involve getting some of the followers of the student who bullies to do the dirty work, while the bully stays in the background. Rumors, gossip, IM, isolation, etc. are all indirect ways to bully.Students must be able to recognize bullying behavior if they are going to be motivated to report it to adults. They need to know how to name the behavior. This slide helps put a name to bullying.
45What is the purpose of this story challenge? What key concept do you want to make sure students know?In this slide we reinforce the key concepts and vocabulary first introduced in the word search. This provides an opportunity for students to apply their learning and discuss it with classmates.Key concept is that students know how to safely report bullying. This activity provides opportunities for students to share ideas with others that would be safe reporting techniques.The Think, Pair, Share methodology works well for students to “self correct” their worksheets and to compare ideas for reporting bullying behaviors.
46Why do we ask the students to list “Safe Ways” to report bullying in the planner activity? Every attempt was made to make the Planner Notes resemble the Planner Notes in the D.A.R.E. Student Workbook. This part of the lesson allows for a natural closure of the first lesson and reconnects the students to the previous D.A.R.E. training experience they have grown accustomed to.
47Why was this optional activity placed in the lesson if it is to be used by the classroom teacher? This activity provides the classroom teacher an opportunity to extend the lesson beyond the D.A.R.E. Officers visit. The Interview Technique also incorporates learning about bullying at the home and provides a conversation starter with the student and their parents. It will take about one class period to compete this activity and is best used prior to the second D.A.R.E. Supplemental Bullying Prevention Lesson.
48Supplemental Lesson Two Lesson two will start off with an energizer that reconnects the students to the lessons learned through Lesson One.Supplemental Lesson Two
49Lesson TwoRead Lesson TwoThink, Pair, ShareGroup Process
50Why do we first have students rate themselves and then work in groups? What challenges might you encounter in this activity?Students will have the opportunity to think about their own behavior and readiness to “Take a Stand” and then think about ways their class can make a difference.Special class considerations: If your classroom has students with reading difficulties. The D.A.R.E. Officer should display the overhead, and read each question to the students and have the questions as they are read. Students in the 5th grade are usually acquainted with using calculators, but if not they should be able total their responses on their own.It is important that instructions are clearly given to students before they move to their groups.Make sure the students have scored their sheets before you provide directions for students to move to groups. Assigning a student from each group to bring a calculator will assist the group in totaling their Team Score.All students with a calculator will try to add up all the team scores and divide them by the number of students present in class once they return to their seats. The sense of “Urgency” will motivate students to hurry to come up with this answer first. Make sure and see if the answers given match those of the other students.Students will then “privately” compare their individual score with that of their group and the Classroom Readiness Score. This activity is very revealing to the student about how much they do to report bullying. Why is this important?
51Why do we use the D.A.R.E. Decision Making Model to look at both bullying and conflict situations? Students are reacquainted with the D.A.R.E. Decision Making model during this activity. They learn that some behaviors are conflicts and some are bullying. Students are given an opportunity to discuss successful ways to resolve conflicts which they will encounter throughout life.
52What do you want students to gain by completing the reflection activity, following these two lessons? Why are these important?Students are limited in what they can do to stop bullying. The adults in the school are key in redirecting bullying behaviors. This activity allows the student to summarize Key Points learned in the two lessons by putting learning into action. This is our last opportunity to clarify any reporting methods that are impractical or unsafe. These activities also cause students to think and reflect on their own behavior to help stop bullying in their school.The lessons are closed by extending an invitation to students to remain in contact with the D.A.R.E. Officer and to look at the officer as a resource for future situations or concerns.
53Kansas Bullying Prevention AwarenessProgramRandy WilerPhone: (913) , ext. 208Fax (913)If you have additional questions or need assistance with providing resource materials for your school, you may contact Randy Wiler at the above address.The following slides may be used, if needed, to address suggestions for interventions at the school level.
54(Optional) Setting up a Bullying Prevention Committee at Your Local School The following slides are to be used as possible discussions points with local school administratorsThe following slides are optional for this training. If D.A.R.E. officers want to develop a Bullying Prevention Committee with their local school administrators, the following slides will offer discussion points for this endeavor.
55Interventions at the school level: Administrative SupportForm a Bullying Prevention Coordinating CommitteeCreate a strategic planIn order to change bullying behaviors we must have ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT. Without administrative support, the adults in the school will soon lose interest in challenging bullying behaviors.We are only offering a starting point in tackling the bullying problems in school through two supplemental lessons on bullying. For a school to effectively address bullying they will have to take a whole school approach. This means they will need to get all the adults on board with a bullying prevention strategy. Several tips are provided to you in the Law Enforcement Resource page of the Bullying Prevention Lesson plan.
56Interventions at the school level (cont.) Administer bully/victim questionnaireTrain all staffDevelop school rules against bullyingUse appropriate positive and negative consequencesRe-examine and fortify supervision of “hot spots”Hold weekly class-room meetingsInvolve parentsThese are some elements of an effective bullying prevention program. Typically you might be called on to be a resource to your school, but ultimately it is up to your school administrator to implement these elements of an effective bullying prevention program.
57Interventions at the school level (cont.) Re-examine and fortify supervision of “hot spots”Do a site survey to determine where the hot spots are located. These are often areas in school that are concealed from view. Suggestion are offered in the Officer Resource pages of the Supplemental Bullying Lesson to accomplish part of this examination.
58Playground Supervision How well is the playground arranged?Are there hidden places?Is there adequate supervision?How are the premises used?Are there fun activities?Is there “room” for all?Administrators are key in providing for this implementation. They might consider placing supervisors for the playground in zones and establish areas of responsibility. The same technique can be used during hall monitoring and lunch room monitoring.
59A coordinated supervisory system Information about known bullying/concerns about possible bullyingshould be reported to teachers and/or grade-level teamsmay be kept in a main logHow will Teacher A, know that Teacher B has already handled a bullying situation with Student A? Each school should have a coordinated documentation system. You can begin to see that without complete support for the school administration, any efforts to reduce bullying will be severely limited.