Presentation on theme: "Www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Review Article Münte, T.F., Altenmüller, E., & Jäncke, L. (2002). The musician’s brain as a model of neuroplasticity. Nature."— Presentation transcript:
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Review Article Münte, T.F., Altenmüller, E., & Jäncke, L. (2002). The musician’s brain as a model of neuroplasticity. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 473-478 Review Article Münte, T.F., Altenmüller, E., & Jäncke, L. (2002). The musician’s brain as a model of neuroplasticity. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 473-478 Bonn, 21.01.2008 YRG @ Department of Epileptology University of Bonn Medical Centre, Germany firstname.lastname@example.org Group work reports Abstract Introduction Subtitles Conclusion Animations Group work reports Abstract Introduction Subtitles Conclusion Animations
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Composition examples Group work Results Main findings for: Group 1: Background Variables (p. 257) Group 2: Background Variables (p. 258) Group 3: Academic achievement (general and reading) Group 4: Academic achievement (mathematics)
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Composition examples Group work Discussion (Morrison et al. article): Group 1: General and „Growth of Academic Skills“ 1st, 2nd, and 3rd paragraph Group 2: „Growth of Academic Skills“, 4th and 5th paragraph Group 3: „Question of Background Variables“ Group 4: „Implications“ until „Educational Policy“
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Main points Abstract Eliciting stimulus→→→→neural changes Professional musicians: ideal model for plasticity Music: complexity of stimuli exposure (practice) reviewed point: brain differences in musicians via neuroimaging
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Main points Introduction Experience shapes cortical representation: temporal: refers to time cortical: refers to cortex Animal studies: training induced plastic changes Hebbian learning: presynaptic cell → repeated and persistant stimulation → postsyn. cell increase in synaptic strength Wikipedia: Assembly Theory
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Main points Introduction Problem with animal studies: lack of ecological validity (?) stimuli limitations Understanding human brain plasticity: changes induced by defects Music performance: highly complex human endeavor musical stimulus: complex, multidimensional, multidomain (multisensory) Possible nature vs. nurture explanation
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Main points Functional measures of plasticity String players: Larger cortical representation of left hand fingers Left hand (“fingering hand”) Greater effect for early beginners Adaptation to own instrument: ↑ responses to own instrument tones plastic changes due to practice
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Main points Functional measures of plasticity Structural regularities of music Pre-attentive detection of changes MMN ↑ in professional musicians: different facets of music Auditory cortex shaping Conductors’ advantage for spatial auditory processing
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Main points Anatomical differences Planum temporale, anterior corpus callosum, primary hand motor area, cerebellum Musicians vs. non-musicians: ↑ left planum temporale Primary hand motor area: negative correlation (?) (commencement of musical training and the size of the primary hand motor area)
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Main points Anatomical differences Corpus callosum: ↑ in musicians (especially if training started before 7 yrs of age) enhanced interaction between the hemispheres: ↓ interhemispheric inhibition (?) facilitation of bimanual coordination Cerebellum: movement timing VBM: ↑grey matter volume in musicians’ motor network
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Main points Sensorimotor learning Phases of motor learning: Consolidation (several hours) Slow learning (gradual performance increase) Tapping: ↑ M1 activity in musicians within minutes: effect of pre-practice experience ↓ SMA activity in musicians: ↑ efficiency Mental practice!
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Main points Sensorimotor learning Audio-motor integration (cooperation): Automatized in musicians Apparent in non-musicians with 20 min. of training The effect extended to a mere observation: listening or viewing (auditory or visual) monkey mirror neurons Example ?
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Main points Maladaptive plasticity „Musicians‘ cramp“ (focal dystonia) Overuse → maladaptive neuroplasticity Dedifferentiation of sensory feedback
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Main points Musicians as a model? Neurobehavioural changes: from several minutes to lifetime Neuroplasticity: new synapses disinhibitions or inhibitions of neuronal connections Commencement of early training: grey and white matter volume changes not pre-existing differences parallel findings: London taxi drivers
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Main points Conclusion Musician‘s brain: valuable model of neuroplasticity Questions for future research: training parameters? the role of genes? effect of emotional networks?
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Task Meeting after next Set up a study trying to answer the following questions: Group 1: music training parameters effect on the brain plasticity Group 2: the role of genes in the music facilitated brain plasticity Group 3: effect of emotional networks on music facilitated brain plasticity
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Single study article Next meeting Norton, A. et al. (2005). Are there pre- existing neural, cognitive, or motoric markers for musical ability? Brain and Cognition, 59, 124-134. Presentation (main points): Group 1: Introduction Group 2: Methods and results Group 3: Discussion
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Sites Animated presentations http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthews/animate.html Brain probe: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/brain/probe.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/brain/probe.html Map: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/organs/brainm ap/index.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/organs/brainm ap/index.shtml http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/java/dottime.htmlhttp://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/java/dottime.html: reaction time test http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/java/boxes.htmlhttp://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/java/boxes.html: boxes RT test
www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de YRG @ Department of Epileptology University of Bonn Medical Centre, Germany email@example.com Work group: Christian Hoppe Jelena Stojanovic Christian E. Elger Funded by Karg-Stiftung für Hochbegabtenförderung (Frankfurt/M.)