Presentation on theme: "Www.hochbegabung-und-gehirn.de Review Article Münte, T.F., Altenmüller, E., & Jäncke, L. (2002). The musician’s brain as a model of neuroplasticity. Nature."— Presentation transcript:
Review Article Münte, T.F., Altenmüller, E., & Jäncke, L. (2002). The musician’s brain as a model of neuroplasticity. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, Review Article Münte, T.F., Altenmüller, E., & Jäncke, L. (2002). The musician’s brain as a model of neuroplasticity. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, Bonn, Department of Epileptology University of Bonn Medical Centre, Germany Group work reports Abstract Introduction Subtitles Conclusion Animations Group work reports Abstract Introduction Subtitles Conclusion Animations
Composition examples Group work Results Main findings for: Group 1: Background Variables (p. 257) Group 2: Background Variables (p. 258) Group 3: Academic achievement (general and reading) Group 4: Academic achievement (mathematics)
Composition examples Group work Discussion (Morrison et al. article): Group 1: General and „Growth of Academic Skills“ 1st, 2nd, and 3rd paragraph Group 2: „Growth of Academic Skills“, 4th and 5th paragraph Group 3: „Question of Background Variables“ Group 4: „Implications“ until „Educational Policy“
Main points Abstract Eliciting stimulus→→→→neural changes Professional musicians: ideal model for plasticity Music: complexity of stimuli exposure (practice) reviewed point: brain differences in musicians via neuroimaging
Main points Introduction Experience shapes cortical representation: temporal: refers to time cortical: refers to cortex Animal studies: training induced plastic changes Hebbian learning: presynaptic cell → repeated and persistant stimulation → postsyn. cell increase in synaptic strength Wikipedia: Assembly Theory
Main points Introduction Problem with animal studies: lack of ecological validity (?) stimuli limitations Understanding human brain plasticity: changes induced by defects Music performance: highly complex human endeavor musical stimulus: complex, multidimensional, multidomain (multisensory) Possible nature vs. nurture explanation
Main points Functional measures of plasticity String players: Larger cortical representation of left hand fingers Left hand (“fingering hand”) Greater effect for early beginners Adaptation to own instrument: ↑ responses to own instrument tones plastic changes due to practice
Main points Functional measures of plasticity Structural regularities of music Pre-attentive detection of changes MMN ↑ in professional musicians: different facets of music Auditory cortex shaping Conductors’ advantage for spatial auditory processing
Main points Anatomical differences Planum temporale, anterior corpus callosum, primary hand motor area, cerebellum Musicians vs. non-musicians: ↑ left planum temporale Primary hand motor area: negative correlation (?) (commencement of musical training and the size of the primary hand motor area)
Main points Anatomical differences Corpus callosum: ↑ in musicians (especially if training started before 7 yrs of age) enhanced interaction between the hemispheres: ↓ interhemispheric inhibition (?) facilitation of bimanual coordination Cerebellum: movement timing VBM: ↑grey matter volume in musicians’ motor network
Main points Sensorimotor learning Phases of motor learning: Consolidation (several hours) Slow learning (gradual performance increase) Tapping: ↑ M1 activity in musicians within minutes: effect of pre-practice experience ↓ SMA activity in musicians: ↑ efficiency Mental practice!
Main points Sensorimotor learning Audio-motor integration (cooperation): Automatized in musicians Apparent in non-musicians with 20 min. of training The effect extended to a mere observation: listening or viewing (auditory or visual) monkey mirror neurons Example ?
Main points Maladaptive plasticity „Musicians‘ cramp“ (focal dystonia) Overuse → maladaptive neuroplasticity Dedifferentiation of sensory feedback
Main points Musicians as a model? Neurobehavioural changes: from several minutes to lifetime Neuroplasticity: new synapses disinhibitions or inhibitions of neuronal connections Commencement of early training: grey and white matter volume changes not pre-existing differences parallel findings: London taxi drivers
Main points Conclusion Musician‘s brain: valuable model of neuroplasticity Questions for future research: training parameters? the role of genes? effect of emotional networks?
Task Meeting after next Set up a study trying to answer the following questions: Group 1: music training parameters effect on the brain plasticity Group 2: the role of genes in the music facilitated brain plasticity Group 3: effect of emotional networks on music facilitated brain plasticity
Single study article Next meeting Norton, A. et al. (2005). Are there pre- existing neural, cognitive, or motoric markers for musical ability? Brain and Cognition, 59, Presentation (main points): Group 1: Introduction Group 2: Methods and results Group 3: Discussion
Sites Animated presentations Brain probe: Map: ap/index.shtml ap/index.shtml reaction time test boxes RT test
Department of Epileptology University of Bonn Medical Centre, Germany Work group: Christian Hoppe Jelena Stojanovic Christian E. Elger Funded by Karg-Stiftung für Hochbegabtenförderung (Frankfurt/M.)