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Keywords An examination of vocabulary through the eyes of Raymond Williams.

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1 Keywords An examination of vocabulary through the eyes of Raymond Williams

2 Williams’ Reasons Behind Writing Keywords Returned from WWII to Cambridge University and encountered a “new language” “We have different immediate values or different kinds of valuation, or that we are aware, often intangibly, of different formations and distributions of energy and interest” (Williams 11).

3 The Effects of “Culture” Language changed because of “culture” “Culture” Preferred word for a kind of social superiority In literature: culture indicated central formation of values In general discussion: culture was equivalent to society (a particular way of life) “American Culture” “Japanese Culture”

4 What exactly is Keywords? “It is the record of an inquiry into a vocabulary: a shared body of words and meanings in our most general discussions, in English, of the practices and institutions which we group as culture and society” (Williams 15).

5 What is a “keyword?” Keyword: single words or habitual groupings that are issues or problems inside the vocabulary Examples: AestheticAlienationFamily EthnicDramaticWealth PeasantWork Unconscious

6 What are your perceptions of the word “taste?”

7 Williams’ Breakdown -States the origins of word -C13 -oF tastare: feel, handle, touch -Establishes two definitions -association with the mouth -more modern touch or feel -examples

8 Still Breaking It Down… -17 th and 18 th century usage -quality -equivalent to discrimination -capitalized -Wordsworth’s attack -Further analysis of words evolving from “taste”

9 Other “Keywords” and their Relation to “Taste” -Cannot be separated from “consumer” -two ideas have developed together -responses to “art” and “literature” profoundly affected by development -See Aesthetic, Consumer, Criticism, and Sensibility

10 In honor of Arts Fest… We will celebrate the word ART

11 Art’s History -derived from the Latin word artem (to fit) -1225 “Telle me of 3oure art. Whi werrie 3e cristene men” (St. Margarete) Skill: its display or application -1300 “Thyn erbes failith and thyn art!” (K. Alis) Skill in applying principles of special technical science -1620 “Spencer and Shakespeare did in art excell” (J. Taylor) The application of skill to subjects of taste, as poetry, music, dancing, the drama…

12 Less Used Defintions -1832 “These men, belonging to the woollen art: (Sismondi) A guild, or company of craftsmen -1410 “So is he constryened and arted” (Love) To confine, cramp, restrict, or limit -1374 “What for to speke, and what to holden inne, And what to arten” (Chaucer) To press, urge, insist on

13 Attacking “Art” -Specialization earlier v. later definitions -Current perceptions “The knowledge that spinning wheels are perfectly good antique stuff…had been impinged upon…by the desire to art up and decorate indiscriminately” (American Magazine 1929) Should this be used as a verb or adjective?

14 Relationships between Distinct Definitions How are the different definitions reconciled? What other “keyword-like” words should be considered when attempting to define art? Are there any synonyms for art? Have there ever been?


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