11Examples of lactic acid fermentation: Dairy production:Microorganisms that use lactic acid fermentation eat the sugar in milk. The lactic acid ferments the milk to make cheese, yogurt, etc.
12Muscles:When your muscle cells run out of oxygen, they can switch to lactic acid fermentation to make some ATP. But the lactic acid builds up in muscles, causing them to cramp.
13Alcoholic Fermentation: After glycolysis, the pyruvic acid loses a carbon to make ____. The electron from NADH is then transferred to the remaining 2-carbon molecule, which makes it ____________.CO2ethyl alcohol
15Examples of alcoholic fermentation: Wine and beer industry:Yeast cells eat sugars and make the waste product ethyl alcohol, which is the alcohol in wine and beer.
16Bread making:Yeast make bread rise because they produce CO2. The alcohol evaporates during baking.
17Fermentation Summary Occurs in cytoplasm Summary: “empty” the NADH so we can repeat glycolysis with the next glucose2Pyruvate CO2 and Ethanol (yeast)or- 2Pyruvate Lactic Acid (bacteria and muscle cells)NO MORE ATP CHARGED!
18ATP Tallies: Anaerobic: - Glycolysis: used 2, made 4 - Fermentation: used 0, made 0Total: +2 per glucose
19Review questions What is the high energy molecule made in respiration? If oxygen is NOT used to break down glucose, what type of respiration is that?What causes your muscles to cramp?
27Electron Transport Chain NADH and FADH2 give up _________ to the ETC.Electrons are passed down the ETC and give off __________.Energy is used to pump _______ out of mitochondrial matrix.electronsenergyH+ ions
28H+ ions diffuse back into the matrix through the _____________. This produces a lot of ATP._______ is the final electron acceptor. Electrons and H+ ions combine with O2 to make water.ATP synthaseOxygen
29Electron Transport Chain Summary: Gather up ALL the electron carriers and “empty” them to “charge” lots of ATPReaction:O2 H2OEnergy molecules USED: 10 NADH (from krebs and glycolysis) + 2 FADH (from krebs)Energy molecules MADE: 32 ATP
30SummaryStarts with: NADH, FADH2Ends with: ATP, water
31ATP Tallies: Aerobic: - Glycolysis: used 2, made 4 - Krebs: used 0, made 2- ETC: used 0, made 32Total: +36 ATP per glucose
322 36 Energy Summary Table Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration (Glycolysis)Aerobic Respiration(Krebs cycle and ETC)# of ATP made from one sugar236