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Ch. 7: Cellular Respiration Getting Energy from food.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 7: Cellular Respiration Getting Energy from food."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 7: Cellular Respiration Getting Energy from food

2 Cellular Respiration: making usable energy in the form of ________, from organic compounds like _________. making usable energy in the form of ________, from organic compounds like _________. ATP glucose

3 2 Types of Cellular Respiration: 1. Aerobic Respiration: –Requires ___________ –Occurs in the ___________ –Get the maximum amount of energy from glucose- 36 ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 0 oxygen mitochondria

4 2. Anaerobic Respiration –Does NOT use __________ –Occurs in the ___________ –Get only a small amount of energy out of glucose 2 ATP –Generally occurs in bacteria and yeast cells. oxygen cytoplasm

5 Glycolysis: means “to break ________”. means “to break ________”. a. It’s the first step in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. b. It does not use oxygen. c. Occurs in the cytoplasm. glucose

6 1. Add energy from _____to a glucose molecule. 2. The _________ splits into 2 3- carbon molecules (PGAL) ATP glucose

7 3. NAD + gains electrons to become NADH. pyruvic acid 4.Four phosphates are taken from the 3-carbon molecule to make ATP and 2 molecules of pyruvic acid.

8 Glycolysis Summary Starts with: glucose Ends with: pyruvic acid, NADH, ATP Net ATP production: 2 ATP

9 Lactic Acid Fermentation: After glycolysis, the NADH transfers an electron to the ______ ____, regenerating the NAD + and creating _____ ____. After glycolysis, the NADH transfers an electron to the ______ ____, regenerating the NAD + and creating _____ ____. Pyruvic acid Lactic acid

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11 Examples of lactic acid fermentation: Dairy production: Dairy production: Microorganisms that use lactic acid fermentation eat the sugar in milk. The lactic acid ferments the milk to make cheese, yogurt, etc.

12 Muscles: Muscles: When your muscle cells run out of oxygen, they can switch to lactic acid fermentation to make some ATP. But the lactic acid builds up in muscles, causing them to cramp.

13 Alcoholic Fermentation: After glycolysis, the pyruvic acid loses a carbon to make ____. The electron from NADH is then transferred to the remaining 2-carbon molecule, which makes it ____________. After glycolysis, the pyruvic acid loses a carbon to make ____. The electron from NADH is then transferred to the remaining 2-carbon molecule, which makes it ____________. CO 2 ethyl alcohol

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15 Examples of alcoholic fermentation: Wine and beer industry: Wine and beer industry: Yeast cells eat sugars and make the waste product ethyl alcohol, which is the alcohol in wine and beer.

16 Bread making: Bread making: Yeast make bread rise because they produce CO 2. The alcohol evaporates during baking.

17 Fermentation Summary Occurs in cytoplasm Occurs in cytoplasm Summary: “empty” the NADH so we can repeat glycolysis with the next glucose Summary: “empty” the NADH so we can repeat glycolysis with the next glucose –2Pyruvate  CO2 and Ethanol (yeast) or - 2Pyruvate  Lactic Acid (bacteria and muscle cells) - 2Pyruvate  Lactic Acid (bacteria and muscle cells)  NO MORE ATP CHARGED!

18 ATP Tallies: Anaerobic: - Glycolysis: used 2, made 4 - Fermentation: used 0, made 0 Total: +2 per glucose

19 Review questions 1. What is the high energy molecule made in respiration? 2. If oxygen is NOT used to break down glucose, what type of respiration is that? 3. What causes your muscles to cramp?

20 Aerobic Respiration Using O 2

21 Mitochondria

22 Aerobic Respiration Continued from glycolysis: Continued from glycolysis: Pyruvic Acid moves to the _________a Pyruvic Acid moves to the _________a Mitochondri

23 Pyruvic acid reacts with coenzyme A and makes ___, _____, and becomes acetyl CoA Pyruvic acid reacts with coenzyme A and makes ___, _____, and becomes acetyl CoA CO 2 NADH

24 Krebs Cycle Acetyl CoA continues to Krebs Cycle where carbon dioxide, ATP, and, FADH 2, NADH are made.

25 Summary of Kreb’s Cycle Starts with: pyruvic acid, CoA Starts with: pyruvic acid, CoAReaction: –2Pyruvate  2Acetyl-CoA + CO 2 –2Acetyl-CoA  4CO 2 Ends with: CO 2, 2ATP, 6NADH, 2FADH 2, Ends with: CO 2, 2ATP, 6NADH, 2FADH 2,

26 Krebs –Can bacteria do Krebs??

27 Electron Transport Chain 1. NADH and FADH­2 give up _________ to the ETC. 2. Electrons are passed down the ETC and give off __________. 3. Energy is used to pump _______ out of mitochondrial matrix. electrons energy H + ions

28 4. H+ ions diffuse back into the matrix through the _____________. This produces a lot of ATP. 5. _______ is the final electron acceptor. Electrons and H + ions combine with O 2 to make water. ATP synthase Oxygen

29 Electron Transport Chain Summary: Gather up ALL the electron carriers and “empty” them to “charge” lots of ATP Summary: Gather up ALL the electron carriers and “empty” them to “charge” lots of ATP Reaction: Reaction: –O2  H2O Energy molecules USED: 10 NADH (from krebs and glycolysis) + 2 FADH (from krebs) Energy molecules MADE: 32 ATP

30 Summary Starts with: NADH, FADH 2 Starts with: NADH, FADH 2 Ends with: ATP, water Ends with: ATP, water

31 ATP Tallies: Aerobic: - Glycolysis: used 2, made 4 - Krebs: used 0, made 2 - ETC: used 0, made 32 Total: +36 ATP per glucose

32 Energy Summary Table Anaerobic Respiration (Glycolysis) Aerobic Respiration (Krebs cycle and ETC) # of ATP made from one sugar236

33 Overall Energy Summary for Aerobic Respiration Glucose + 2ATP  2 Pyruvate + 4ATP + 2NADH Reactants (used up/broken down) Products (created/built up) 2 Pyruvate  2CO2 + 2Acetyl-CoA + 2NADH 2Acetyl-CoA  6NADH + 2FADH2 + 2ATP+ 4CO2 10NADH + 2FADH2 + 6O2  32ATP + 4CO2 + 6H2O What’s Left?  Final Reaction for Aerobic Respiration

34 Overall reaction + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 ATP


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