Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 DNA Repair Dr Derakhshandeh. 2 For DNA information must be transmitted intact to daughter cells.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "1 DNA Repair Dr Derakhshandeh. 2 For DNA information must be transmitted intact to daughter cells."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 DNA Repair Dr Derakhshandeh

2 2 For DNA information must be transmitted intact to daughter cells

3 3 Accuracy is maintained by: 1- High fidelity in replication 3’- exonuclease activity of DNA pol I Uracil-DNA N-glycosylase pathway (corrects mutations from deamination of cytosine) cytosine Uracil

4 4 Accuracy is maintained by: 2-Mechanisms for correcting genetic info. in damaged DNA e.g due to chemical modifications Irradiation changes

5 5 Categories of DNA Repair 1.Mismatch Repair (Synthesis + Repairing) MM created by replication errors DNA Pol III proof reading non-homologous recombination are recognized and corrected DNA Pol III

6 6 Categories of DNA Repair 2. Base Excision Repair (Euk/Pro) Starts at cleavage of glycosidic bond (connects base to sugar-phosphate backbone) glycosidic bond

7 7 Categories of DNA Repair 3. Direct Repair - Damaged base undergoes a chemical/UV reaction Restores original structure (pro) e.g. DNA photolyase - E.coli

8 8 Categories of DNA Repair 4. Nucleotide Excision Repair (Prok: 12/Euk: 28) - damaged DNA: excised replaced with normal DNA 5. Recombinational Repair -Fills gaps in DNA : -Newly replicated DNA duplexes undergo genetic recombination Removal of damaged segment

9 9 DNA REPAIR (1) Photoreactivation (aka Light Repair)

10 10 DIRECT DNA DAMAGE AND REPAIR A variety of irradiation (ionizing, ultraviolet, etc) DNA damage of a variety of sorts: U.V. induced formation of Thymine Dimmer Blocked replication and gene expression until repaired Prohotoreactivation enzyme Photolyase Prokaryote

11 11 UV induced formation of Thymine Dimer

12 12 CT

13 13 Photoreactivation (Light Repair) PHR/PRE gene codes for photolyase with cofactor folic acid binds in dark to T dimer When light shines on cell folic acid absorbs the light (photon) uses the energy to break bond of T dimer photolyase then falls off DNA

14 14

15 15 DNA REPAIR (2) Excision Repair (aka Dark Repair)

16 16 Excision Repair (Dark Repair) 3 different types of repair mechanisms use different enzymes (a) AP Repair (Base Excision Repair, BER) (b) UV Damage Repair (also called NER - nucleotide excision repair) (c) Mismatch Repair (MMR)

17 17 (a)AP Repair (Base Excision Repair, BER) Repair of apurinic and apyrimidinic sites on DNA in which base: has been removed Base removed by: –DNA glycosylases –which remove damaged bases ung gene codes for uracil-DNA glycosylase –recognizes and removes U in DNA –by cleaving the sugar-nitrogen bond to remove the base

18 18 AP endonucleases: class I nick at 3' side of AP site class II nick at 5' side of AP site Exonuclease removes short region of DNA DNA Pol I and ligase fill in gap

19 19 (b) UV Damage Repair (also called NER - nucleotide excision repair) It uses different enzymes NER removes a large "patch" around the damage Even though there may be only a single "bad" base to correct, its nucleotide is removed along with many other adjacent nucleotides NER: UV BER: Chemicals/Agents

20 20

21 21 NER (UV Damage Repair) Nuclease: can detect T dimer nicks DNA strand on 5' end of dimer (composed of subunits coded by uvrA, uvrB and uvrC genes) UvrA protein and ATP bind to DNA at the distortion UvrB binds to the UvrA-DNA complex and increases specificity of UvrA-ATP complex for irradiated DNA

22 22 UvrC nicks DNA 8 bases upstream and 4 or 5 bases downstream of dimer UvrD (DNA helicase II; same as DnaB) separates strands to release 12-bp segment DNA polymerase I now fills in gap in 5'>3' direction ligase seals polA - encodes DNA pol I –mutant was viable retained normal 5'>3' exo activity – only 2% of polymerase activity

23 23 Excision Repair of Thymine dimers by UvrABC exinuclease of E.coli

24 24 (c) Mismatch Repair (MMR) Accounts for 99% of all repairs Mismatch from replication behind replication fork Two ways to correct mistakes made during replication: 1) 3'>5' exonuclease - proofreading 2) Mismatch repair mutL mutS mutH and mutU (same UvrD) gene products involved (mut for mutator because if gene is mutated, cell has increased levels of spontaneous mutations)

25 25 How does system recognize progeny strand rather than parent strand as one with mismatch? Because of methylation DNA methylase (coded for by dam [DNA adenine methylase] locus) methylates 5'-GATC-3' sequence in DNA at A residue Mismatch from replication recognized by mutL and mutS gene products mutH gene product nicks DNA strand (progeny strand) on either side of mismatch DNA helicase II from mutU gene (also called uvrD gene) unwinds DNA duplex and releases nicked region Gap filled in by DNA Pol I and ligase

26 26 DNA REPAIR (1) Photoreactivation (aka Light Repair) (2) Excision Repair (aka Dark Repair) (3) Postreplicative (Recombinational) Translation Bypass Repair

27 27 DNA REPAIR (3) Postreplicative (Recombinational) Translation Bypass Repair

28 28 SOS response If T dimer is not repaired DNA Pol III can't make complementary strand during replication leaves large gap (800 bases) Gap may be repaired by enzymes in recombination system RecA - coats ssDNA it also acts as autocatalysis of LexA repressor recA mutants - very UV-sensitive Now have sister-strand exchange - a type of recombination Translation bypass Postreplicative repair is part of SOS response

29 29 SOS Response

30 30 LexA normally represses about 18 genes sulA and sulB, activated by SOS system inhibit cell division in order to increase amount of time cell has to repair damage before replication Each gene has SOS box in promoter LexA binds SOS box to repress expression RecA : LexA catalyses its own breakdown when RecA is stimulated by ssDNA due to RecA binding ssDNA in lesions could then bind to DNA Pol III complex passing through this area of the DNA and inhibit 3'>5' exonuclease (proofreading) ability RecA no longer catalyzes cleavage of LexA (which is still being made) so uncleaved LexA accumulates and turns the SOS system off

31 31 Why are DNA Repair Systems Necessary? E.coli Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP)

32 32 E.coli repairing thymine dimers important to bacteria an E. coli strain that is: –phr (no photoreactivation) –recA (no translation by pass or SOS) –uvrA (no excision repair) is killed by a single thymine dimer

33 33 Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) XP is a rare inherited disease of humans predisposes the patient to: –pigmented lesions on areas of the skin exposed to the sun –an elevated incidence of skin cancer

34 34

35 35 Xeroderma Pigmentosum

36 36 It turns out that XP can be caused by mutations in any one of several genes all of which have roles to play in NER Some of them: XPA, which encodes a protein that binds the damaged site assemble the other proteins needed for NER XPB and XPD, which are part of TFIIH (Helicase) XPF, which cuts the backbone on the 5' side of the damage XPG, which cuts the backbone on the 3' side

37 37 Some mutations in XPB and XPD also produce signs of premature aging

38 38 Transcription-Coupled repair Protein: ERCC6 recognizes RNApol Mutation in gene: Cokayne Syndrom: MR Nerve disease Sensibility to sun

Download ppt "1 DNA Repair Dr Derakhshandeh. 2 For DNA information must be transmitted intact to daughter cells."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google