Prepared by: Ardita Camaj – Introduction and timeline Rrezarta Jusufi – Troubled times Visare Hsxhaj – 20 th century witch hunts
Appearance of witches-place end time Settlement of Salem 1629, Massachusetts The Puritans lifestyle- their strong believe in Devil Witchcraft was considered a sin because it denied God’s superiority and a crime and cruel acts against others.
Time lasting of witch trail By 17th century- Witchcraft was made by law a capital crime and one of the greatest crime a person could commit, punishable by death. The first arrests were made on March 1,1692 and the last one in September The witch trials era lasted less than a year
Peoples responsibility for the accusations and victims Putnam, Samuel Parris, Parris’ opponents and other authority people There are numerous factors and events that helped create and influence the trials Every victim was an unfortunate tragedy of the Salem Witch Trials. Some were hanged, others died in prison while awaiting trial
Certainty of accused people Persecution was done to certain people, because of the race, religion and political beliefs Most of the villagers accused of witchcraft lived near Ipswich Road, whereas the accusers lived in the distant farms of Salem Village
Age and gender of the accused witches Yong and old, men and women were accused including children from four year old Women were more often accused as a witches, for they had traditionally been seen as more sinful sex Five men were convicted and hanged, and one man, Giles Corey, was pressed to death for refusing to cooperate with the court.
Evidence used to convince the accused Women who ‘played the game’ were prime candidates for the accusations of witchcraft. Fear, reading books, children games were punished and sinful The successful prosecutions of witch trial depends on the existence of appropriate juridical tools and willingness of authorities to use them
The end of the trail The event of witchcraft took place during the confusion period of Salem by the end of 17 th century The final hanging day was September 22, 1692. The trial was stopped because ‘they sow many innocent persons hanged’
Life in Salem 1692 Religion and witchcraft Church was the cornerstone of 17 th century life in New England. Most people in Massachusetts were puritans. The puritan life style was restrained and rigid: People were expected to work hard and repress their emotions or opinions. Puritans believed God would punish sinful behavior. When a neighbor would suffer misfortune, such as a sick child or a failed crop, Puritans saw it as a God’s will and did not help.
Puritans also believed the Devil was as real as God. Everyone was faced with the struggle between the powers of good and evil, but Satan would select the weakest individuals – woman and children – to carry out his work. Those who followed Satan were considered witches. Witchcraft was one of the greatest crimes a person could commit, punishable by death. The Puritans kept a firm connection between church and government and thus could control the activities of the community. At this time as a minister of Salem Village was selected Reverend Samuel Parris who was a strong opponent to the economic prosperity of Salem Town and claimed it to be the influence of the Devil.
Puritan children In 1692 children were expected to behave under the same strict code as the adults – doing chores, attending church services and repressing individual differences. Children rarely played, as toys and games were scarce. Puritans saw these activities as sinful distractions. Many children learned to read, but most of households owned only the Bible and other religious works – including a few that described evil spirits and witchcraft in great detail.
In this illustration, the boy is being punished for turning around to talk to his friend.
Causes of Witchcraft Hysteria in Salem Strong belief that Satan is acting in the world A belief that Satan recruits witches and wizards to work for him A belief that a person afflicted by witchcraft exhibits certain symptoms A time of troubles – making it seem likely that Satan was active
20-th CENTURY WITCH HUNTS Witch hunts that don’t involve witches
The definition of a witchhunt. According to American Heritage Dictionary a witch hunt is a political campaign on the pretext of investigating activities that are destroying a government, religion etc. What caused the witchhunts? The main factors that started them were : politics, religion, family feuds, economics and the imaginations and fears of the people
Holocaust Is a word of Greek meaning “Sacrifice by fire”. The holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime. Auschwitz Was the largest camp established by the Nazi regime.
Apartheid The Former official government policy in South Africa of separating people of different races and making them live apart. South Africa is a country with rich mineral resources such are : gold, diamonds, platinum. The discover of diamonds in these lands in 1900 caused in English invasion which started the African war.
In 1948 the racial discrimination was institutionalized and these race laws touched every aspect of African social life. “Pass books” No political rights In 1960 a large group of blacks in Sharpevill refused to carry their passes. Sixty nine people were killed and 187 wounded.