The formation of ions involves the loss or gain of electrons. The ions formed by an atom will depend on its atomic structure and the number of valence electrons. Ionic compounds form when there is a transfer of electrons between atoms. An ionic bond is the attraction that keep positive ions and negative ions together.
Most ionic compounds are composed of a metal and a non-metal. Ionic compounds have high melting points and tend to be soluble in water. Ionic compounds are good electrical conductors when liquid or when dissolved in water.
Road salt is used in the winter to reduce icy driving conditions. Nevertheless, because of its harmful effects on the environment, the frequency and amount of road salt used should be carefully considered.
Forming Ions: 1.What is an ion? An ion is an atom or molecule where the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a positive or negative charge
Diagrams of Ions Lithium: [ Li ] + Neutral Atom Ion Symbol 3P 4N 3P 4N
3. Describe how an ionic compound is formed. When an ionic compound is formed, one or more electrons from one atom are transferred to another atom.
4. If an atom loses an electron, what kind of particle does it become? Once an atom loses an electron, it becomes a positively charged ion.
6. Describe the following properties of ionic compounds: PropertyDescription Physical States Exist in a solid arrangement called a crystal lattice (a regular repeating pattern of ions) Liquid version = aqueous state (solution) Gaseous version = non-existent EXAMPLE: Sodium Chloride (Salt)
PropertyDescription SolubilitySoluble in water The water separates the positive and negative ions from each other causing the bonds to break EXAMPLE: Salt dissolving in H 2 0 ConductivityIf solid – poor conductor (ions locked in place) If liquid – good conductor (ions free to move around) EXAMPLE: Salt vs. Salt water Water, Salt, Light!
7. List the negative effects of road salts on ecosystems. Salt enters the environment through the soil, ground water and surface water ↑ levels of salt in soil can prevent/slow plant growth which can affect animals In water, ↑ levels of salt can affect aquatic plant and animal species