Presentation on theme: "Nomenclature A Systematic Approach to Naming Chemical Compounds."— Presentation transcript:
Nomenclature A Systematic Approach to Naming Chemical Compounds
Nomenclature I Binary Ionic Compounds Binary Molecular Compounds
Binary Ionic Compounds 2 elementsmetal with a non-metal
Binary Ionic Compounds 2 elementsmetal with a non-metal Naming systematically: Write metal name then name of the non-metal modified with “-ide” ending If 2 or more oxidation states are possible then a Roman numeral follows the metal name – the Stock convention (e.g., transition metals, Sn, Pb) Examples: KClpotassium chloride MgF 2 magnesium fluoride By the way: Not Potassium Chloride Not Magnesium Fluoride
Binary Ionic Compounds Note: ionic charge is based on location on the periodic table. Thus, formula can be deduced from name and vice versa.
He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn The Periodic Table of the Elements Most Probable Oxidation State CrMnFeCoNi Mo W Tc Re Ru Os Rh Ir Pd Pt +1 +2+3 44 - 3- 2- 1 0 H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Sc Y Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra La Ac B Al Ga In Tl Ti Rf Hf Zr C Si Ge Sn Pb F Cl Br I At O S Se Te Po N P As Sb Bi Zn Cd Hg Cu Ag Au V Nb Ta Ce Th PrNdPmSmEuGdTbDyHoErTmYbLu PaUNpPuAmCmBkCfEsFmMdNoLr DuSgBoHaMe
Binary Ionic Compounds Examples Aluminum chloride Al 3+ Cl - AlCl 3 AlCl (3+) + ?(-1) = 0 (3+) + 3(-1) = 0 Write the chemical formula of aluminum chloride
Binary Ionic Compounds Examples CuBr 2 Write the systematic name for CuBr 2 copper(II) bromide Cu ?+ Br - (?+) + 2(-1) = 0 (2+) + 2(-1) = 0 Cu ?+ Cu 2+ Copper is a transition element so use Stock convention for naming the metal ion:
Binary Ionic Compounds Al 2 O 3 aluminum oxide TaCl 5 tantalum(V) chloride osmium(IV) oxide OsO 2 magnesium nitrideMg 3 N 2 Examples of compounds where multiple oxidation states are available Examples
Binary Molecular Compounds 2 elementsusually 2 non-metals Naming systematically: Write the unmodified name of the first element followed by the name of the second element modified with the “-ide” ending. Number of each atom indicated by use of the Greek numeral prefix Note: electrons are shared—therefore number of each element cannot be determined from periodic table. The number of each element must be provided in compound name. Greek Prefixes 1mono-7hepta- 2di-8octa- 3tri-9nona- 4tetra-10deca- 5penta-12dodeca- 6hexa-
Binary Molecular Compounds Examples Sulfur dioxide SO 2 SO Write the chemical formula of sulfur dioxide 2 It’s a compound of 2 nonmetals so ionic charge calculations don’t apply.
Binary Molecular Compounds Examples CCl 4 Write the systematic name for CCl 4 carbon tetrachloride Now, assemble the pieces of the name… carbon chloride tetra
Notes: If 2 o’s in a row then drop 1 If the first element is mono the prefix is usually dropped Examples: N2ON2Odinitrogen monoxide N2O4N2O4 dinitrogen tetraoxide COcarbon monoxide CO 2 carbon dioxide P2O5P2O5 diphosphorous pentoxide arsenic triiodideAsI 3