3 Stable Electron Configurations When the ________ occupied energy level of an atom is filled with electrons, the atom is ________ and not likely to reactNoble gases are ______ (have 8 valence electrons)Argon: Greek work argos, means “idle” or “inert”Chemical properties depend on the number of valence _________
4 Stable Electron Configurations Electron dot diagram- a model of an atom in which each dot represents a _______ _______the symbol in the center represents the ______ and all other electrons in the atom
7 Ionic BondsElements that do not have ________ sets of valence electrons tend to react, which allows them to achieve electron ____________ similar to noble gases.Some elements achieve _______ electron configurations through the transfer of electrons between ________
8 Ionic Bonds Transfer of Electrons Na would then have the same stable electron arrangement as ______At the atomic level: an electron is transferred from each Na atom to a Cl atom; each atom ends up with a more stable electron arrangement than it had before the ______________ has one electron fewer than an argon atomIf Cl gains a valence electron, it would have the same stable electron arrangement as _______Sodium has one valence electron (1 electron more than Neon)If _______ lost this electron, its highest occupied energy level would have 8 electrons
9 Ionic Bonds Formation of Ions When an atom _____ or _____an electron, the number of protons is no longer equal to the number of electrons.Charge on atom is neither balanced nor ______Ion- an atom that has a net positive or ______ electric chargeCharge is represented by a plus or a minus sign
10 Ionic Bonds Formation of Ions Naming Cl _____ electron Has 17 protons and 18 electronsIon has -1 charge because of the 1 extra electronCl1- or Cl-Na _____ electronHas 11 protons and 10 electronsIon has +1 charge because of the extra protonNa1+ or Na+Anion- ion with a _____ chargeNamed: element name plus suffix –ideCl- : chloride ionCation- ion with a ______ chargeNamed: just use the element nameNa+ : sodium ion
12 Ionic Bonds Formation of Ionic Bonds Remember: ________ charges attractWhen an anion and ______ are close together, a chemical bond forms between themChemical Bond- the force that holds atoms or ions ________ as a unit (one)Ionic Bond- the force that holds cations and anions togetherAn ionic bond forms when electrons are _______ from one atom to another
13 Ionic Bonds Ionization Energy The _____ the ionization energy, the easier it is to remove an electron from an atomIonization energies tend to increase from left to right across a periodIonization energies tend to decrease from the top of a group to the bottomExample: easier to remove an electron from K than from Na (K is more reactive than Na)Cations form when electrons ____ enough energy to escape from atomsThis energy allows electrons to overcome the ________ of the protons in the nucleusIonization Energy- the amount of energy used to remove an electron_______ from element to element
14 Ionic CompoundsCompounds that contain ionic bonds are ionic compounds, which can be represented by ________ _________.Chemical Formula- a notation that shows what elements a compound contains and the ratio of the atoms or _____ of these elements in the compound
15 Ionic Compounds The chemical formula for sodium chloride is _____ From the formula, you can tell that there is one sodium ____ for each chloride ion in sodium chloride
16 Ionic Compounds What would be the formula for magnesium chloride? Mg cannot reach a stable electron configuration by reacting with just ____ Cl atom, it must transfer electrons to ___ Cl atomsFormula is: _______Subscripts are used to show the _____ numbers of atoms of the elements present (if only one atom of element, no subscript is needed)
17 Ionic Compounds Crystal Lattices Each chloride ion is surrounded by ___ sodium ions and each sodium ion is surrounded by ___ chloride ionsCrystals- solids whose particles are arranged in a ______ structure; classified into groups based on shape; shape depends on arrangementThe arrangement of the ions depends on the ____ of ions and their relative sizeA ______ formula for an ionic compound tells you the ratio of the ions in the compound, but it doesn’t tell you how the ____ are arranged in the compound.Salt: pieces are shaped like _____This shape is a clue to how the sodium and chloride ions are arranged in the ________
19 Ionic Compounds Crystal Lattice Crystals of a ruby have a six-sided, _______ shape
20 Ionic Compounds Properties of Ionic Compounds _____ melting point In solid state, _____ conductor of electric currentWhen _____, good conductor of electric currentSolid crystals ______ when struck with hammer
21 Ionic Compounds Properties of Ionic Compounds The properties of an ionic compound can be explained by the ______ attractions among ions within a crystal latticeRecall: the arrangement of particles in a substance is the result of __ opposing factors1. attractions among particles in the substance2. _______ energy of the particlesThe stronger the attractions among _____, the more kinetic energy the particles must have before they can _______.
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