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Noadswood Science, 2012.  To understand and be able to represent ionic bonding Sunday, May 10, 2015.

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Presentation on theme: "Noadswood Science, 2012.  To understand and be able to represent ionic bonding Sunday, May 10, 2015."— Presentation transcript:

1 Noadswood Science, 2012

2  To understand and be able to represent ionic bonding Sunday, May 10, 2015

3 Appearance  The appearance of a substances (colour, state etc…) gives you the first clues about what it could be  However this is not that reliable – a big suspicious bag of white powder could be anything (it could be cocaine, it could be talcum powder, it could be rat poison)

4 Behaviour  The behaviour of a compound gives the next clues as to what it is – this is determined by the structure of the bonding within the substance… Salt under a microscope

5 Ionic Bonding  When metals react with non-metals, electrons are transferred from the metal atoms to the non-metal atoms, forming ions – the resulting compound is an ionic compound  Consider reactions between metals and non-metals, e.g. sodium + chlorine → sodium chloride magnesium + oxygen → magnesium oxide calcium + chlorine → calcium chloride  In each of these reactions, the metal atoms give electrons to the non- metal atoms – the metal atoms become positive ions and the non-metal atoms become negative ions

6 Ionic Bonding – Demo  There is a strong electrostatic force (generated by differences in electric charge) of attraction between these oppositely charged ions, called an ionic bond  Many ionic bonds in an ionic compound are arranged in giant lattice structures (a regular grid-like arrangement of atoms)

7 Ionic Compounds  Ionic bonds form when a metal reacts with a non-metal – metals form positive ions; non-metals form negative ions  Ionic bonds are the electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions (+ve and –ve)  The oppositely charged ions are arranged in a regular way to form giant ionic lattices (ionic compounds often form crystals as a result)

8 Lattice  In an ionic compound, millions and millions of ions are packed together in a regular cubic arrangement, joined by ionic bonds forming a giant 3D structure called a (giant) ionic lattice

9 Ionic Properties  Ionic compounds have the following properties: -  High melting and boiling points - ionic bonds are very strong (a lot of energy is needed to break them) causing ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points  Conductive when liquid - ions are charged particles, but ionic compounds can only conduct electricity if their ions are free to move so ionic compounds only conduct electricity when dissolved in water or melted

10 Ionic Properties  Ionic compounds do not conduct electricity when they are solid because the ions are packed together and cannot move  When molten, however, the lattice breaks up and the ions are free to move (as there are charged particles they can carry an electric current)  Ionic compounds are usually soluble in water because water molecules have a slight electrical charge and can attract the ions away from the lattice – when dissolved, the ions are free to move and can carry an electric current

11 Ionic Properties  Ionic compounds are brittle – they shatter when they are hit  When the lattice is hit, a layer of ions is shifted so that ions with the same charges are lined up together  These like charges repel each other, thereby splitting the lattice

12 Ionic Properties Ionic CompoundProperties Sodium Chloride NaCl High melting point: 800ºC Non-conductive in its solid state, but when dissolved in water or molten NaCl will conduct electricity Magnesium Oxide MgO High melting point: 2,800ºC Mg 2+ and O 2- ions have a greater number of charges, so they form stronger ionic bonds than the Na + and Cl - ions in sodium chloride As magnesium oxide stays solid at such high temperatures it remains non-conductive (high-temperature electrical insulation)

13 Salt Water Conductivity  Your task is to design an experiment to test if water / sugar water / salt water is a good conductor of electricity…  Explain using a diagram how you would test this  Taking a beaker add either the water, sugar water or salt water to it – stir the mixture and connect a circuit up – if the bulb lights the solution is able to conduct…

14 Salt Water Conductivity  Water and sugar water do not conduct, however salt water does – explain why this is the case…  Consider what is needed for the flow of electrical current…

15 Salt Water Conductivity  Salt dissociates into ions when it dissolves in water allowing conduction of an electrical current (the large salt crystals separates into smaller ions)  This process produces ions which can freely move, transferring electrical charges (and the flow of electrical current)  A solution can only conduct an electric current it it contains freely moving ions – water and sugar are both lacking in these

16 Soluble (Higher)  Some ionic compounds dissolve, whilst others do not (useful for forensice scientists when trying to identify ionic compounds)…  Sodium (Na); Potassium (K); and Ammonium (NH 4 ) salts are soluble in water  Nitrates (NO 3 ) are soluble in water  Most chlorides (Cl) are soluble in water, except silver and lead which are insoluble in water  Most sulfates (SO 4 ) are soluble in water, except barium and lead which are insoluble in water (calcium is slightly soluble in water)  Most oxides (O), hydroxides (OH) and carbonates (CO 3 ) are insoluble in water, except sodium and potassium which are soluble in water

17 Charges (Higher)  Different ions have different charges – the ionic compound must have a neutral charge… *Carbon and silicon (group IV) usually form covalent bonds (sharing electrons) **Elements within group VIII do not react with other elements to form ions IIIIIIIVVVIVIIVIII Element example NaMgAlCNOClHe Charge *3-2-1-** Ion symbol Na + Mg 2+ Al 3+ *N 3- O 2- Cl - **

18 Charges (Higher)  Different ions have different charges – the ionic compound must have a neutral charge… Na +Cl  NaCl (sodium chloride) Mg + O  MgO (magnesium oxide) Al + Cl  AlCl 3 (aluminium chloride) Na +O  NaO 2 (sodium oxide) Al + O  Al 2 O 3 (aluminium oxide) Na + N  NaN (sodium cyanide)

19 Charges (Higher)  Different ions have different charges – the ionic compound must have a neutral charge… Na +Cl  NaCl (sodium chloride) Mg + O  MgO (magnesium oxide) Al + Cl  AlCl 3 (aluminium chloride) Na +O  NaO 2 (sodium oxide) Al + O  Al 2 O 3 (aluminium oxide) Na + N  NaN (sodium cyanide)

20 Charges (Higher)  Different ions have different charges – the ionic compound must have a neutral charge… Na +Cl  NaCl (sodium chloride) Mg + O  MgO (magnesium oxide) Al + Cl  AlCl 3 (aluminium chloride) Na +O  NaO 2 (sodium oxide) Al + O  Al 2 O 3 (aluminium oxide) Na + N  NaN (sodium cyanide)

21 Properties Quiz

22 Summary  Ionic compounds: -  Form giant lattices  Are made of charged particles (ions)  Metal ions are +ve  Non-metal ions are –ve  Forces of attraction between the ions are very strong – ionic compounds have a high melting point and are solids at room temperatures  Some ionic compounds dissolve in water


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