Presentation on theme: "Element’s Search for Happiness"— Presentation transcript:
1Element’s Search for Happiness CHEMICAL BONDSA Dog’s Tale about anElement’s Search for Happiness(chemical stability)
2CHEMICAL BONDSThe forces that hold atoms together…often driven by the Octet Rule and stability.(Mutual electrical attraction between nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds them.)
3Chemical BondsSometimes it helps to think of bonds (which you can't see) in terms of familiar things you can see. This is called an analogy. Let's use the natural attraction of dogs to bones as an analogy to the attractions that cause chemical bonds.
4Bones are the electrons. Chemical BondsThe negatively charged electrons determine how two or more atoms will interact when they are brought near each other. In a sense, the atoms fight over the available electrons in much the same way two or more dogs will fight over bones. The Dog Bone Analogy works quite well for several types of atomic bonds. Dogs are the atoms.Bones are the electrons.
5Octet Rule 8 (most of the time) 2 (1st energy level) Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of valence electrons.8 (most of the time)2 (1st energy level)orHappy dogs!
6IONIC BONDSOne big greedy thief dog! Ionic bonding can be best imagined as one big greedy dog stealing the other dog's bone.
7The bone represents the electron that is up for grabs. IONIC BONDSThe bone represents the electron that is up for grabs.When the big dog gains an electron he becomes negatively charged, and the little dog who lost the electron becomes positively charged. These two ions (that's where the name ionic comes from) are attracted very strongly to each other as a result of the opposite charges.
8IONIC BONDS Chemical bonding that results from transfer of electrons and electrical attraction between cations and anions.Form between metals (on the left side of the Periodic Table) and non-metals (on the right side of Periodic Table)Metal loses electron(s) and becomes positively charged…a cation.Non-metal gains electron(s) and becomes negatively charged…an anion.The oppositely charged ions are held together because they are strongly attracted to each other.Determine difference in electronegativitySee page 161Difference of greater than 1.7 is often considered ionicIonic character greater than 50%
9IONIC BOND? Cs and F? Page 161 electronegativity chart F en = 4.0 Cs en = 0.73.3 is the electronegativity differenceA bond between Cs and F is ionic, greater than 1.7
10IONIC COMPOUNDSExpressed as “formula units” rather than molecules because they form networks of ions attracted to each other…not independent neutral units.Characteristics:Crystalline structureHigh melting pointsBrittleDissolve in waterThis separates the ions by breaking the ionic bonds…separated ions move freely making solution of ionic compounds good conductors of electricity.Also conductive when melted.
11Formula unit is NaCl, 1 sodium and 1 choride, the simplest ratio Ionic compounds form orderly arrangements of the ions , called crystal lattices.
13COVALENT BONDS The dogs share the bones. There are two types of sharing:UNEQUALEQUAL
14COVALENT BONDS Bonds formed when electrons are shared Covalent bonds form between non-metals (on the right side of the Periodic Table)The electrons are shared by the atoms.Electrons may be shared equally or unequally.Molecules are formed because atoms sharing electrons must be near each other
15COVALENT BONDSEnormous variety of size, shape, physical, and chemical properties.often lower melting point,not necessarily crystallinedo not conduct electricity,may or may not dissolve in water
16POLAR COVALENT BONDSUnevenly matched dogs that are willing to share. These bonds can be thought of as two or more dogs that have different desire for bones. They share unequally.
17POLAR COVALENT BONDSThe bigger dog has more strength to possess a larger portion of the bones. Sharing still takes place but is an uneven sharing.
18POLAR COVALENT BONDSIn a covalent bond, the electrons are shared between atoms to fulfill the Octet Rule for both.In a polar covalent bond, the electrons are shared unequally. They are attracted more to the more electronegative element.The electrons spend more time near the more electronegative element, making it seem more negative and the other end of the molecule seem more positive…or “polar”Determine difference in electronegativitySee page 161Difference of is often considered polar covalentIonic character 5-50%
23Polamolecules Two sides to Troy Polamalu Calm, quiet, humble on the sidelineFearless, crazed, maniacal on the field
24Polar molecules and polar bonds Two sides to the molecules/bondsPartial positive charge towards less electronegative elementPartial negative charge towards element with greater electronegativity.S
25NON-POLAR COVALENT BONDS Covalent Bonds: Dogs of equal strength share equally. Covalent bonds can be thought of as two or more dogs with equal attraction to the bones. They share equally.
26NON-POLAR COVALENT BONDS Since the dogs are identical, then the dogs share the bones evenly. Since one dog does not have more of the bone than the other dog, the bone is equally shared between both dogs. One dog does not have more than the other.
27NON-POLAR COVALENT BONDS In a covalent bond, the electrons are shared between atoms to fulfill the Octet Rule for both.In a non-polar covalent bond, the electrons are shared equally.The charge is evenly distributed between both atoms. The molecule is non-polar meaning one side does not have more charge than the other.Determine difference in electronegativitySee page 161Difference of less than .3 is often considered nonpolar covalentIonic character less than 5 %
28NON-POLAR COVALENT BOND? Cl and Br?Page 161 for enCl en = 3.0Br en = 2.80.2 is the electronegativity differenceA bond between Cl and Br is non=polar covalent, less than 0.3
29NON-POLAR COVALENT BOND? Equal sharing of electronsEqualdistribution of chargeEqualdistribution of charge
30Diatomic Elements They pair up! Br2I2N2Cl2H2O2F2The diabolical DIATOMIC BrINClHOF TWINS!
31METALLIC BONDSMellow dogs with plenty of bones to go around. They don’t have to worry about sharing!
32METALLIC BONDSThese bonds are best imagined as a room full of puppies who have plenty of bones to go around and are not possessive of any one particular bone. This allows the electrons to move through the substance with little restriction. The model is often described as the "kernels of atoms in a sea of electrons.”
33METALLIC BONDs Electrons are “delocalized” Electrons move freely around and between atoms in the network of empty orbitals. The electrons move through the substance with little restriction. The model is often described as the "kernels of atoms in a sea of electrons.”
34METALLIC BONDSThe free movement of electrons explains the properties of metals…Conductivity: free movement of electronsMalleability & ductility: bonding is the same in all directionsLuster: energy released as electrons move easily between orbitals
35We will look more closely at the different types of bonds to understand how millions of different compounds form from only about 100 different elements!
36Lewis Dot of Ionic Compounds (electrons taken, not shared) Write the dot structures of the neutral atomsWrite the ions created by the loss or gain of electrons, in brackets. The metals have no dots. The non-metals have a full outer shell.Show the ion charges as superscripts.Show the ratio of ions needed to create a net charge of zero.
37Criss-Cross Method to Determine Ratio of Ions Write the ion symbols and charges (superscripts). Get this info from periodic table for elements, polyatomic ion list for polyatomic ions.Criss-cross the charge (numbers only) to subscripts. This shows the ratio of ions required for a net charge of zero.Simplify. Mg2+ N3-Mg3N2
38Charges of ions from PT group 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18 ve 3 4 5 6 7 2 or 8charge1+2+3+4+/-3-2-1-
39Why does it work?The goal is a net charge of 0. The charges, or oxidation numbers, must add up to zero.Mg3N23 x 2+ = 6+2 x 3-= 6-0 net charge
40Lewis Dot Structures of Covalent Bonds(shared electrons) Lewis dot structures show atoms near each other sharing pairs of electrons to create bonds and satisfy octet rule for both atoms.They may share up to 3 pairs of electrons1 SHARED PAIR :SINGLE BOND2 SHARED PAIRS ::DOUBLE BOND3SHARED PAIRS :::TRIPLE BONDIt does not matter which atom the electrons come from because they are shared.
41Covalent bonds usually follow the octet rule Put all of the valence electrons in a pot and distribute them between the atoms so each atom has a full octet by sharing up to 3 pairs of electrons.: single bond:: double bond:: triple bond