Presentation on theme: "Metallic Bonds & Ionic Bonds. Homework Review 3.1 Draw dot structures of the following molecules, which obey the octet rule. Remember that hydrogen, with."— Presentation transcript:
Homework Review 3.1 Draw dot structures of the following molecules, which obey the octet rule. Remember that hydrogen, with only one energy level, will acquire 2 valence electrons. NH 3 H 2 CO SO 3 BrCl O 3 N 2
Homework Review 3.2 Arrange the following bonds, from most highly polar to least polar. a) H-I b) Br-Cl c) N-I d) H-O
Homework Review 3.3 Hydrogen cyanide, the gas used in the gas chambers in some states of the United States, has the structure H C N What is the total number of electrons represented by the lines connecting the C to the N?
Homework Review 3.4 What atom would form a nonpolar covalent bond with a flourine atom?
Metallic Bonds Positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons. A. Outermost electrons wander freely through metal. B. Free electrons can move rapidly in response to electric fields metals are good conductors of electricity. C. Free electrons can transmit kinetic energy rapidly metals are good conductors of heat. D. The layers of atoms in metal are hard to pull apart because of the electrons holding them together metals are tough. Individual atoms are not held to any other specific atoms atoms slip easily past one another. Thus metals are ductile. Metallic Bonding is the basis of our industrial civilization.
Metallic Bonds Found in any metal or alloy Solid – have high melting point Conduct electricity and heat Luster – silvery shine Malleability – shaped by hammering Ductility – draw into wire
Ionic Bonds Transfer of electrons between a metal and a nonmetal. Causes a positive atom and a negative atom which attract. (electrostatic attraction) Metal gives the electron becomes positive Nonmetal accepts electron becomes negative
Size of Ions Metals smaller Lose shell Nonmetals larger more repulsion between electrons
Electron dot structure for ionic bonds No molecules show ions atomsions LiF Li F [ Li ] + [ F ] -
Electron dot structure for ionic bonds Metals giving Nonmetals accepting atomsions CaOCa O[Ca] 2+ [ O ] 2-
Electron dot structure for ionic bonds atomsions CaF 2 Ca F F [ Ca ] 2+ 2[ F ] -
Properties of Ionic Compounds Crystalline Hard High melting point – solid Conduct in water – electrolytes Conducts when melted Stuck – doesn’t conduct Unstuck (mobile ions) - conducts
Electronegativity Difference F4.0 Fr0.7 3.3 greatest possible difference covalent ionic 0 1.7 3.3 nonpolar more polar H 2 0 3.5NaCl 3.2 - 2.1 - 0.9 1.4 2.3
Type of bond? – ionic or covalent 0-1.7 = covalent 1.7-3.3 = ionic TiO 2 CH 4 NaI CS 2 CO 2 KCl AlCl 3 CsFHBr 2.0 – ionic 0.5 – covalent 1.8 - ionic 0 – covalent 0.9 – covalent 2.4 - ionic 1.6 – covalent 3.2 – ionic 0.9 - covalent
Ionic Bonds: One big greedy thief dog! Ionic bonding can be best imagined as one big greedy dog steeling the other dog's bone. If the bone represents the electron that is up for grabs, then when the big dog gains an electron he becomes negatively charged and the little dog who lost the electron becomes positively charged. The two ions (that's where the name ionic comes from) are attracted very strongly to each other as a result of the opposite charges.
Covalent Bonds: Dogs of equal strength. Covalent bonds can be thought of as two or more dogs with equal attraction to the bones. Since the dogs (atoms) are identical, then the dogs share the pairs of available bones evenly. Since one dog does not have more of the bone than the other dog, the charge is evenly distributed among both dogs. The molecule is not "polar" meaning one side does not have more charge than the other.
Polar Covalent Bonds: Unevenly matched but willing to share. These bonds can be thought of as two or more dogs that have different desire for bones. The bigger dog has more strength to possess a larger portion of the bones. Sharing still takes place but is an uneven sharing. In the case of the atoms, the electrons spend more time on the end of the molecule near the atom with the greater electronegativity (desire for the electron) making it seem more negative and the other end of the molecule seem more positive.
Metallic Bonds: Mellow dogs with plenty of bones to go around These bonds are best imagined as a room full of puppies who have plenty of bones to go around and are not possessive of any one particular bone. This allows the electrons to move through the substance with little restriction. The model is often described as the "kernels of atoms in a sea of electrons."