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DEBATES NATURE/NURTURE FREEWILL/DETERMINISM INDIVIDUAL/SITUATIONAL ETHNOCENTRISM REDUCTIONIST/HOLISM IS PSYCHOLOGY A SCIENCE G544: Section B.

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Presentation on theme: "DEBATES NATURE/NURTURE FREEWILL/DETERMINISM INDIVIDUAL/SITUATIONAL ETHNOCENTRISM REDUCTIONIST/HOLISM IS PSYCHOLOGY A SCIENCE G544: Section B."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEBATES NATURE/NURTURE FREEWILL/DETERMINISM INDIVIDUAL/SITUATIONAL ETHNOCENTRISM REDUCTIONIST/HOLISM IS PSYCHOLOGY A SCIENCE G544: Section B

2 Learning Objectives All: Will understand the techniques required to answer the G544 debate Section B questions. Most: Will be able to answer exam type questions with minimal prompts, achieving your Aspirational Grade. Some: Will be able to answer exam type questions and achieve above your Aspirational Grade.

3 What Makes a Top ten University? 1. In your partnership discuss, which question applies to you. A top ten university can be explained in terms of reductionism/holism or both? Why? A top ten university can be explained in terms of individual factors/situational factors or both? Why? A top ten university can be explained in terms of nature or nurture? Why? What debate(s) best explains what makes a top ten university? Does ethnocentrism play a role? Why or Why not?

4 Time to Recap! June 2011 Briefly outline the self-report method used in psychology. (4) Describe two pieces of research that use the self-report method. (8) Discuss the strengths and limitations of using self-report to investigate behaviour. (12) Compare the self-report method with the observational method. (8) Discuss whether it is possible to conduct ethical research when using the self-report method. (8)

5 Discuss the strengths and limitations of using self-report to investigate behaviour. (12) Discuss whether it is possible to conduct ethical research when using the self-report method. (8)

6 Exam Question Time 1. You and your partner will work with each other to answer some exam questions. 2. To help you, you can use your notes and mark schemes provided. St/Wk Either Discuss You have 15 minutes Extension: Do the opposite question

7 Discuss how useful the situational debate is to everyday life? The situational side of the debate is useful because it helps us understand the reasons as to why individuals may behave in the way they do e.g. obey authority figures. Milgram’s study suggests that the majority of the individuals obeyed by shocking another person to 450V. This was due to them being in an agentic state whereby they no longer felt responsible for their actions and would pass this responsibility on to the authority figure. In addition, they also obeyed due to being in a prestigious environment where they felt it was a genuine and authentic study. Explain: This highlights the role of situation factors on an individual’s behaviour and suggests that anyone in that particular situation would go on to obey an authority.

8 Discuss how useful the situational debate is to everyday life? The situational side of the debate is useful because it helps us to understand the reasons as to why individuals may behave in extreme ways. This is useful as it highlights the role of situational factors on an individual’s behavior and therefore, with this awareness it can help to explain extreme behavior and prevent stereotypes and prejudices against groups of people who behave in extreme ways. For example, Milgram’s study suggests that the majority of the individuals obeyed by shocking another person to 450V. This was due to them being in an agentic state whereby they no longer felt responsible for their actions and would pass this responsibility on to the authority figure. Milgram’s study is useful as the situational factors he highlighted in his study helped people to understand that German’s were not different and therefore breaking stereotypes that were adopted after World War II.

9 What are the strengths and limitations of ethnocentric research? One strength of Ethnocentric research is that is allows one to test a particular group in more detail and find out why they may behave the way they do. This is a strength because it can help researchers identify causes of certain behaviour that appears to be problematic and come up with ways to prevent or treat certain behaviour. For example, Milgram’s study looked at obedience within Americans by finding out how far they would go to shock another human being. This detailed investigation allowed Milgram to see how far Americans would go and the reasons for why they may obey. By focusing on one group of people, Milgram can go into more detail and make generalisations to an extent within that group.

10 What are the strengths and limitations of ethnocentric research? Ethnocentric research allows one to test a particular group in more detail and find out why they may behave the way they do. For example, Milgram’s study looked at obedience within Americans by finding out how far they would go to shock another human being. This detailed investigation allowed Milgram to see how far Americans would go and the reasons for why they may obey. By focusing on one group of people, Milgram can go into more detail and make generalisations to an extent within that group.

11 What are the strengths and limitations of ethnocentric research? One strength of Ethnocentric research is that it allows one to test a particular group in more detail and find out why they may behave the way they do. This is a strength because ethnocentric behaviour can help researchers identify causes of certain behaviour that appears to be problematic and come up with ways to prevent or solutions to stopping criminal behaviour. For example, in Wikstrom’s study on poverty, he was able to conclude that in Peterborough that poverty was a risk factor rather than a cause for criminal behaviour. This is a strength as by identifying poverty as a risk factor in Peterborough researchers can develop programmes in this area to help prevent criminal activity in youths aged

12 Debates Nature Nurture Individual Situational Ethnocentrism Reductionism Holism Reflect on the debates. Bullet point what you know about them. Rate how comfortable you are with each debate (1-5)


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