2Today’s lessonBe able to understand what is meant by “methodology” and “research” in psychology.Look at the characteristics, the strengths and weaknesses of lab experiments with humansLook at the strengths and weaknesses of lab experiments with animals
3What is research? How we find out things about behaviour. Research in psychology is a way of separating fact from opinionSome research methods are associated with certain approaches.In this topic, you need to make the link between a methodology and an approach.
4What is research? There are many types of research method TASK How many ways can you think of to investigate human behaviour? Think about the research we have looked at so far during this topic.
5Methodology 1: Laboratory experiments with humans Conducted in a lab – a controlled environmentIndependent variableWhat the experimenter has control over and manipulatesDependent variableWhat is affected by the independent variable and measuredTASKIdentify the IV and DV for the lab studies
6Methodology 1: Laboratory experiments with humans Key featuresControlled, artificial settingStandardised proceduresManipulation of IV, measuring of DVParticipants know they are in a studyUsually, many people are testedTASKLook back to the assumptions of the behaviourist approach. Why do you think behaviourists may like using lab experiments?
7Methodology 1: Laboratory experiments with humans We have come across one key lab study in the behaviourist approach: Bandura (1961)TASKRead the recap of Bandura, and complete the information.
8Methodology 1: Laboratory experiments with humans TASKRead the evaluation points. Highlight the important information
9Some new terminology Ecological Validity TASK How well a study can be related to or reflects everyday real life. Studies with high ecological validity can be generalised beyond the setting they were carried out in, whereas studies low in ecological validity cannot.TASKHow ecologically valid was Bandura’s experiment?
10Some new terminology Demand Characteristics TASK When participants know that they are in a study, their behaviour may change. They may try to please the experimenter, or try to mess it up.In either case, their behaviour becomes invalidTASKCould there have been demand characteristics in Bandura’s experiment?
11Some new terminology Experimenter Effects TASK The experimenter may inadvertently or deliberately alter the behaviour of the participants in the experiment. Possibly by tone of voice or body language etcAgain, this may lead to behaviour which is not validTASKCould there have been experimenter effects in Bandura’s experiment?
12Methodology 2: Laboratory experiments with animals What experiments in the behaviourist approach use animals?
13Methodology 2: Laboratory experiments with animals One way of studying human behaviour is to carry out experiments on animals, and generalise the results to humans.Gives the opportunity to carry out experiments which would be too unethical or impractical to carry out on humans.
14Methodology 2: Laboratory experiments with animals Behaviourists assume that there are few differences between animals and humans. Therefore we can generalise results.Also allows greater control over the environmentRemember the behaviourist assumption?Key featuresSimilar to lab studies with humans; manipulation of IV, controlled environment etc.However, more control than using humans.
15Methodology 2: Laboratory experiments with animals TASKBriefly describe Skinner and Pavlov’s research. Briefly describe what they did, being sure to use the terms IV and DV, controlled environment and standardised procedures
16Methodology 2: Laboratory experiments with animals TASKWith the person sat next to you, think up as many pros and cons about using animals in psychological experiments as you can.Don’ t cheat by reading ahead!Read the evaluation and highlight the key points
17Group TaskFor one of the methodologies, create a poster which outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the methodBUT: you can only use 4-5 words for each point. Use visual representations
18Ethical GuidelinesYou are the head of the psychology research department at a university. Some of your students are about to conduct research using animals.What 3 rules would you insist that they follow?
19Ethical Guidelines The Experimental Psychology Society (1986) Minimise stress and suffering for all animalsAlways consider the possibility of other options to animal researchBe as economical as possible in the number of animals used
20Homework5: Explain and evaluate the methodology used in the behaviourist approach (12)AO3 questionBe sure to read the advice on page 6 as well as the “how to answer exam questions” handout.Date Due: ___________________-