Presentation on theme: "Methodology of the Behaviourist Approach. Today’s lesson Be able to understand what is meant by “methodology” and “research” in psychology. Look at the."— Presentation transcript:
Today’s lesson Be able to understand what is meant by “methodology” and “research” in psychology. Look at the characteristics, the strengths and weaknesses of lab experiments with humans Look at the strengths and weaknesses of lab experiments with animals
What is research? How we find out things about behaviour. Research in psychology is a way of separating fact from opinion Some research methods are associated with certain approaches. In this topic, you need to make the link between a methodology and an approach.
What is research? There are many types of research method TASK How many ways can you think of to investigate human behaviour? Think about the research we have looked at so far during this topic.
Methodology 1: Laboratory experiments with humans Conducted in a lab – a controlled environment Independent variable What the experimenter has control over and manipulates Dependent variable What is affected by the independent variable and measured TASK Identify the IV and DV for the lab studies
Methodology 1: Laboratory experiments with humans Key features Controlled, artificial setting Standardised procedures Manipulation of IV, measuring of DV Participants know they are in a study Usually, many people are tested TASK Look back to the assumptions of the behaviourist approach. Why do you think behaviourists may like using lab experiments?
Methodology 1: Laboratory experiments with humans We have come across one key lab study in the behaviourist approach: Bandura (1961) TASK Read the recap of Bandura, and complete the information.
Methodology 1: Laboratory experiments with humans TASK Read the evaluation points. Highlight the important information
Some new terminology Ecological Validity How well a study can be related to or reflects everyday real life. Studies with high ecological validity can be generalised beyond the setting they were carried out in, whereas studies low in ecological validity cannot. TASK How ecologically valid was Bandura’s experiment?
Some new terminology Demand Characteristics When participants know that they are in a study, their behaviour may change. They may try to please the experimenter, or try to mess it up. In either case, their behaviour becomes invalid TASK Could there have been demand characteristics in Bandura’s experiment?
Some new terminology Experimenter Effects The experimenter may inadvertently or deliberately alter the behaviour of the participants in the experiment. Possibly by tone of voice or body language etc Again, this may lead to behaviour which is not valid TASK Could there have been experimenter effects in Bandura’s experiment?
Methodology 2: Laboratory experiments with animals What experiments in the behaviourist approach use animals?
Methodology 2: Laboratory experiments with animals One way of studying human behaviour is to carry out experiments on animals, and generalise the results to humans. Gives the opportunity to carry out experiments which would be too unethical or impractical to carry out on humans.
Methodology 2: Laboratory experiments with animals Behaviourists assume that there are few differences between animals and humans. Therefore we can generalise results. Also allows greater control over the environment Remember the behaviourist assumption? Key features Similar to lab studies with humans; manipulation of IV, controlled environment etc. However, more control than using humans.
Methodology 2: Laboratory experiments with animals TASK Briefly describe Skinner and Pavlov’s research. Briefly describe what they did, being sure to use the terms IV and DV, controlled environment and standardised procedures
Methodology 2: Laboratory experiments with animals TASK With the person sat next to you, think up as many pros and cons about using animals in psychological experiments as you can. Don’ t cheat by reading ahead! TASK Read the evaluation and highlight the key points
Group Task For one of the methodologies, create a poster which outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the method BUT: you can only use 4-5 words for each point. Use visual representations
Ethical Guidelines You are the head of the psychology research department at a university. Some of your students are about to conduct research using animals. What 3 rules would you insist that they follow?
Ethical Guidelines The Experimental Psychology Society (1986) Minimise stress and suffering for all animals Always consider the possibility of other options to animal research Be as economical as possible in the number of animals used
Homework 5: Explain and evaluate the methodology used in the behaviourist approach (12) AO3 question Be sure to read the advice on page 6 as well as the “how to answer exam questions” handout. Date Due: ___________________-