2Outline Obedience Milgram Experiment Responsibility and Obedience Diffusion of Responsibility
3Extreme Obedience Jonestown, Guyana, 1978 Jim Jones, cult leader of The People’s Temple, persuaded his followers to drink Kool-Aid laced with cyanide913 died, including >200 children poisoned by their parentsFactorscult members felt alienated from American societycult members were in an isolated locationJones was very charismaticJones promised life “in a better place”Waco Texas, USA, 1993David Koresh, cult leader of the Branch Davidians, maintained an armed standoff with the government for 51 days until he and cult members died in a fire of unknown originover 80 adults and children died
4Extreme Obedience Nazi Holocaust Germany & Poland (Europe) Rwanda 6,000,000Rwanda(Africa)1994800,000An estimated 210 million people were killed by genocide in 20th century.
5Are the people who commit such acts inherently evil? Adolf Eichmannsupervised the deportation of 6,000,000 Jews to Nazi gas chambersWere Germans generally evil?Was Eichmann an evil sadist or merely a cog in the wheel?
6The Milgram Experiments ObedienceWillingness to obey the commands of a legitimate authorityProcedures:‘Teacher’ & ‘Student’: learn word pairs‘Teacher’ required to administer shock to ‘learner’ for errors
7Milgram Video: Questions How did Milgram make the situation seem realistic?What was the task for the learner and for the teacher?How did the learner protest?What sorts of things did the experimenter say to encourage the teacher to obey? What made the experimenter seem like an authority?How far did subjects go before stopping?Did the real subjects enjoy shocking the learner? Were they sadists?Did the subjects obey just because Yale researchers had legitimate authority?… and a few things to think about…Was the study ethical?Were the results worth it?Why did so many people obey?What would you have done in that situation?
8Obedience Song Obedience Song (4.067 MB) ….this is what happens when social psychologists have too much time on their hands…
9Factors That Affect Obedience Remoteness of the victimteacher and learner in separate rooms: 65% obedienceteacher and learner in same room: 40% obedienceteacher and learner in physical contact (teacher had to put learners hand on apparatus): 30% obedienceCloseness and legitimacy of authority figure“ordinary person” confederate instead of experimenter: 20% obediencePersonal characteristicsno significant differences based on sex (though women reported feeling more guilty), politics, religion, occupation, education, military service, or psychological characteristicsCog in a Wheel“another subject” confederate does the dirty work and real subject assists: 93% obedience“another subject” confederate disobeys: 10% obediencesubjects told they are responsible for learner’s welfare: 0% obedience
10Responsibility and Obedience “I refuse to take the responsibility of him getting hurt in there.”“Who takes the responsibility if anything happens to that gentleman in there?”
11Part 1 At 3:00 a.m., a woman drives home She starts walking towards her entrance. But, then, sees a man standing at the edge of the parking lotInstead, she heads towards street for police "call box"The man grabs herShe screams "Oh, my God, he stabbed me! Please help me! Please help me!”IF PEOPLE SAW THIS: HOW MANY OF THEM WOULD BE WILLING TO TRY TO HELP THE WOMAN?(Helping includes picking up the phone to call the police)
12A. No one would be willing to try to help. B. One or two people would be willing to try to help.C. Half the people would be willing to try to help.D. More than half the people would be willing to try to help.E. Most of the people would be willing to try to help.(choose only ONE)
13Part 2Someone from an apartment building floor higher up yells out "Let that girl alone!"Hearing this, the killer starts walking away toward a white car.The neighbors turns out their lightsBut, the killer returns and starts stabbing her again.This time she screams "I'm dying! I'm dying!."IF PEOPLE SAW THIS, HOW MANY OF THEM WOULD BE WILLING TO TRY TO HELP THE WOMAN?
14Neighbors again open their windows and turn on their lights; a city bus drives by; the killer runs to his car and starts to drive off . The woman is now struggling to make it to her apartment.IF PEOPLE SAW THIS, HOW MANY OF THEM WOULD BE WILLING TO TRY TO HELP THE WOMAN?Part 3
15Part 4 Now, it's around 3:45 a.m.: The killer returns again, searches for the woman, finds her, and seems to deliver the final, fatal stab wound.IF PEOPLE SAW THIS, HOW MANY OF THEM WOULD BE WILLING TO TRY TO HELP THE WOMAN?
16Kitty Genovese Queens, New York. A total of 38 neighbors watched Stabbed to death over 35 min periodThe first phone call = 3:50 a.m. after Kitty was already dead.
20When Do People Help?? “Bystander Effect”(Darley & Lantané ) People are less likely to intervene if there are more people aroundAs the number of bystanders increases, the likelihood of any one bystander helping decreases and the more time passes before anyone helps
22Diffusion of Responsibility The decrease in an individual's sense of responsibility to help in an emergency when other bystanders are present. Responsibility gets diffused out across all people present
23Diffusion of Responsibility “I used to ask myself, ‘Why doesn’t somebody do something?!’ Then I realized I am somebody.”-- Jane Wagner
24Diffusion of Responsibility Seizure study (Latane & Darley, 1968)Procedure:SS put in individual booths and told they would discuss personal problems via speaker system.During the discussion, a confederate suffers a seizure over intercom.Manipulation (IV):SS led to believe they were:AloneIn 3-person groupIn 6-person groupDVs: % who help and mean time to help
25Darley and Latané (1968) - the "seizure" study Percentage of Participants WhoAttempted to Help Victim
26Darley and Latané (1968) - the "seizure" study Numbers of SecondsPassing before ParticipantsAttempted to Help Victim
27Diffusion of Responsibility The Smoke-Filled Room (Latane & Darley, 1970) SS showed up for an experiment and were asked to fill out a set of questionnaires. While filling out these questionnaires, the room began to fill up with smoke.SS were tested in three conditions:1) Alone in room2) w/ 2 confederates3) w/ 2 other "real" subjectsDV: % subjects reporting smoke within 6 mins
28Diffusion of Responsibility Percentageof SSReportingSmoke
29Diffusion of Responsibility Chair Study (Gaertner & Dovidio, 1977)Diffusion of responsibility among Whites may be heightened when the victim is BlackChairs fall on a fellow subject (B or W)DV: % who help