Presentation on theme: "Warm up! 1.Stand up 2.Shake the hand of the person next to you 3.Sit down 4.Clap your hands together five times 5.Moo like a cow."— Presentation transcript:
Warm up! 1.Stand up 2.Shake the hand of the person next to you 3.Sit down 4.Clap your hands together five times 5.Moo like a cow
Learning Objectives define the key term: obedience describe Milgram’s (1963) research study
What is obedience? Definition Obedience is a type of social influence which causes a person to act in response to an order given by another person. The person who gives the order usually has power or authority.
How far would you go to obey orders?
Context The Nazi extermination policy toward the Jews began in 1941 when special mobile killing units began lining up and shooting Jews in mass graves 12,000 Jews were killed daily On 11 April 1961, the trial of Adolf Eichmann, a Nazi soldier in World War II, began He was widely regarded as the architect of the Holocaust
Milgram (1963) Research Study The maximum number of shocks that could be delivered to a “learner” was 30, starting at 15 Volts and going up to 450 Volts in 15-Volt increments.. “The Germans are different!’
How many participants, out of a total of 40, do you think delivered the maximum 450-Volt shock, which was labelled XXX?
Conclusions Demonstrates ordinary people can be very obedient to authority, even when asked to do in humane (bad) things. This shows people are not necessary evil, but ordinary people can carry out evil acts when pressured to obey. Therefore it is more situational factors than dispositional (personality) factors.
Variations of MILGRAM’S original study
Proximity of the Victim (Increased proximity) Instead of the Teacher and learner in same room, the learner was placed in another room away from the teacher so the teacher could hear the protests of the learner, but could not see the learner.
Physical force Teacher had to force learner’s hand onto the plate to receive electric shock
Support Teacher given support from two other ‘teachers’ (who were actually confederates) who refuse to obey
Reduced proximity Experimenter left the room and gave instructions to ‘teacher’ by telephone
Getting someone else to do it! Teacher paired with confederate who threw the switches to give the shock
Original study 65% of participants continued to give shocks up to 450 volts
Proximity of an authority figure Teacher and experimenter in same room Highers obedience rates as the teacher is always being observed and therefore feeling pressure. When the proximity changed and the experimenter left the room, several participants gave Weaker shock levels despite telling the experimenter they were following the correct Procedures! Ooommmmmmm…..
Presence of Allies Teacher given support from two other ‘teachers’ (who were actually confederates) who refuse to obey. The participants then started following the ‘teachers’ who were confederates and also refused to obey, so they didn’t have to inflict anymore harm.
Proximity of the Victim The learner was seated in another room, although the teacher could hear the learner (i.e, pain and screams when the shocks happened) Experimenter left the room and gave instructions to ‘teacher’ by telephone When they the learner and teacher where situated in the same room. The level of obedience dropped. As well as when they had to touch the learner and get them to put there hand on the shock plate, again the levels dropped.
Increasing the teachers discretion Where in a change of variables. Milgram changed the orders and left the teachers to shock the participants at an electricity level of their discretion. (meaning they didn’t have to tell anyone) In this condition only 1 participant out of 40 went up to a fatal dose of electricity.
What is obedience? (1 mark) Briefly outline the difference between obedience and conformity. (2 marks) What was the background motivation for Milgram’s work? (2 marks) Outline the main findings from Milgrams study (4marks) Draw three conclusions about obedience that you have learnt from Milgrams study of obedience. (6 marks)