Presentation on theme: "DRUGS AND MEDICINES * What makes a drug a medicine? *Why are certain drugs considered “drugs of abuse”? *Effects on the body."— Presentation transcript:
DRUGS AND MEDICINES * What makes a drug a medicine? *Why are certain drugs considered “drugs of abuse”? *Effects on the body
DRUG VS. MEDICINE Drug Any substance that causes change in person’s physical or psychological state Drugs can have different effects or 1 specific effect Medicine Used to cure, prevent, or treat discomfort Must have these 3 Effectiveness (good at carrying out its task) Safety (safe when used as directed) Minor side effects
“DRUGS OF ABUSE” Drugs that people take for mind-altering effects that have no medical purpose. Examples include cocaine, alcohol, and marijuana…………..Can you think of any others?
WHERE DO DRUGS COME FROM? All drugs contain chemicals!! *Natural sources- plants, animals, fungi. *Created in laboratories.
TYPES OF MEDICINES… Analgesic- relieves pain (acetaminophen) Antihistamine- Relieves minor allergy symptoms (Nasonex) Antacid- Neutralizes stomach acid (Tums, Pepcid AC) Antibiotic- Kills bacteria to cure infections (penicillin) Anti-inflammatory- Reduces inflammation of skin (cortisone cream) Hormone- Work differently (insulin) Stimulant- Increases alertness (caffeine) Anti-anxiety- Helps those who are extremely nervous to calm down (?) Vaccine- Prevents infections (Gardasil, Flu) Bronchodilator- Opens airways for breathing (?) Sedative- Causes sleepiness (Lunesta)
OTC VS. PRESCRIPTION Over the Counter (OTC) Medicines that can be bought without a prescription. EXAMPLES??? Prescription Requires written order from a doctor. EXAMPLES???
WHAT CAN MEDICINES DO? “CURE”“PREVENT”“RELIEVE”
HOW DO DRUGS ENTER OUR BODY? INGESTION- swallowed INHALATION- inhaled and enters lungs INJECTION- hypodermic needle TRANSDERMAL PATCHES- placed on skin IMPLANTED PUMPS- surgically implanted TOPICAL APPLICATION- applied directly to area and absorbed through skin
FDA Created in 1906 Controls safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics Approval process 1.Initial testing; may include chemical tests 2.1 st tests on human volunteers 3.Once passed 1 st tests, clinical trials begin; tested on humans who have the illness the drug is meant to treat. 4.If safe and effective, FDA will approve.
PRESCRIPTION Info on a prescription Dosage (how much you should take) When How often Length of time Why follow a prescription? Can you misuse prescriptions?
OTC Generic medicine- made by a company other than the company that developed the original drug. Active ingredient- chemical component that gives medicine its action What are the benefits of OTC’s? Can you misuse OTC’s?
HERBAL REMEDIES & DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Thought is that they are safer because they are “natural”, however DOES NOT mean it’s safer!! Some of the most toxic compounds known are completely natural! Name 1 significance that makes “herbal remedies” and “dietary supplements” different from all other medicines.
PROBLEMS???? Allergic reactions Itching all over body Swelling Wheezing or difficulty breathing Pounding heart Fainting Unconsciousness What is the most severe form of shock? Affects almost the entire body! Drug interaction- drug reacts with another drug, food, DS.
DRUGS CAN AFFECT????? EMOTIONS VISION REFLEXES SPEECH JUDGEMENT COORDINATION
THE PATH TO ADDICTION DRUG USE Activates brain reward system (pleasure system) TOLERANCE User needs more of the drug to produce same effect. DEPENDENCE User experience withdrawal symptoms once he/she stops using. ADDICTION User has lost control of drug-taking habit.
OTHER TERMS…. Tolerance- develops after repeated drug use when user finds that it takes more to feel same effect. Physical dependence- body relies on a given drug in order to function normally. Psychological dependence- emotionally and mentally needing a drug in order to function normally. Withdrawal- uncomfortable physical and psychological symptoms produced when drug user stops using.
WARNING SIGNS OF ADDICTION Loss of interest in schoolwork Dramatic change of appearance Change of friends Unexplained mood swings Absences from school Dramatic change in eating habits Excessive secretiveness Lying Unexplained need for money
Can addiction be treated? Many people believe that addicts use for the rest of their life….not true. Fighting addiction is not easy, but many free themselves from addiction everyday. Treatment programs, and counseling help addicts. There is 1 foolproof way to avoid addiction………. DON’T START!!