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Module 1: Overview of HIV Infection Unit 01.03: Natural History and Progression Of HIV Infection 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 1: Overview of HIV Infection Unit 01.03: Natural History and Progression Of HIV Infection 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 1: Overview of HIV Infection Unit 01.03: Natural History and Progression Of HIV Infection 1

2 Objectives At the end of this session the participants will be able to: 1.Define the cells involved in the immune system and their function 2.Know the host immune response during and after infection 3.Describe stages of progression of HIV in adults 4.Know and stage HIV infection by WHO classification

3 Cells of the immune system Responsible for protecting the body from invading foreign bodies Help prevent autoimmune diseases and cancers from developing Found in blood and tissues In blood mostly are white blood cells (WBC) Macrophages clearing the body of infected, old or damaged cells Neutrophils attack bacteria Eosinophils attack worms (and mediate allergies) B-lymphocytes make antibodies T-lymphocytes –T cells are responsible for attacking viruses, fungi and some bacteria like mycobacteria –T helper (CD4) cells are central in orchestrating function of other immune cells –CD8 or T killer cells are able to destroy infected cells

4 How HIV Affects Immune System HIV attaches to cells of the immune system through special surface markers called CD4 receptors The following immune cells have CD4 receptors T-Lymphocytes – CD4+ Cells Macrophages Monocytes Dendritic cells HIV infection of CD4 cells causes cell dysfunction and death

5 Effect of HIV on the Immune System The hallmark of HIV/AIDS is a profound immunodeficiency as a result depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes. The CD4+ T cell depletion is two fold – Reduction in numbers – Impairment in function

6 Effect of HIV on the Immune System Reduction in the CD4 cell number and the effects on their function reduces the capacity of the body to fight infectious diseases. Individuals with HIV infection are therefore increasingly susceptible to many infections especially at later stages of HIV infection

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8 Host immune response during HIV infection Primary HIV Infection – On exposure, there is a 2-4 week period of intense viral replication and widespread dissemination of virus characterized by High plasma viral load (RNA) Rapid decline in CD4 count In some cases an acute illness occurs – Lasts from 1-2 weeks, but it is rarely diagnosed – Symptoms if present resemble those of other viral illnesses; requires high index of suspicion Symptom resolution with reduction in plasma viremia due to development of an immune response and antibodies to the virus

9 Asymptomatic Disease (Latency) Patients then enter a stage of asymptomatic disease phase lasting on average 2-10 years (clinical latency) Characterized by gradual decline in CD4 count – Rate depends on viral load Long term non-progressors – Rare – >>10-15 year survival without ART – CD4>500; low viral load – Host genetic/immunological or viral factors may be involved

10 Symptomatic Disease and AIDS Viral load continues to rise causing – Increased demands on immune system as production of CD4 cells cannot match destruction – Increased susceptibility to common infections (URTI, pneumonia, skin etc) – Late-stage disease is characterized by a CD4 count <200cells/mm 3 and the development of opportunistic infections, selected tumors, wasting, and neurological complications).

11 Bacterial skin infections Shingles Thrush (mouth & tongue) Pneumococcal disease/ TB at any time Oral hairy leukoplakia EPTB more likely PCP Cryptococcal meningitis Toxoplasmosis Herpes simplex infections Histoplasmosis CD4 cell count (cells/mm 3 ) 10 Cytomegalovirus infections Mycobacterium avium Complex infections Opportunistic Infections During Disease Progression 3-15 years Time after infection

12 Disease Staging WHO Clinical Staging designed to – Be used where HIV infection is confirmed with an antibody/virological test – Help monitor patients and determine prognosis – Help determine prioritize need for preventive therapies – Provide guidance as to when to start or review ARV drug therapy – Help assess clinical response to therapy in the absence of appropriate laboratory tests

13 WHO clinical staging of HIV disease in adults and adolescents (1/4) Clinical stage 1 Asymptomatic Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy Clinical stage 2 Moderate unexplained weight loss (under 10% of presumed or measured body weight) Recurrent respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, pharyngitis) Herpes zoster Angular cheilitis Recurrent oral ulceration Papular pruritic eruptions Seborrhoeic dermatitis Fungal nail infections

14 Clinical stage 3 Unexplained severe weight loss (over 10% of presumed or measured body weight) Unexplained chronic diarrhoea for longer than one month Unexplained persistent fever (intermittent or constant for longer than one month) Persistent oral candidiasis Oral hairy leukoplakia Pulmonary tuberculosis Severe bacterial infections (e.g. pneumonia, empyema, pyomyositis, bone or joint infection, meningitis, bacteraemia) Acute necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis, gingivitis or periodontitis Unexplained anaemia (below 8 g/dl ), neutropenia (below 0.5 x 10 9 /l) and/or chronic thrombocytopenia (below 50 x 10 9 /l) WHO clinical staging of HIV disease in adults and adolescents (2/4)

15 Clinical stage 4HIV wasting syndrome Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia Recurrent severe bacterial pneumonia Chronic herpes simplex infection (orolabial, genital or anorectal of more than one month's duration or visceral at any site) Oesophageal candidiasis (or candidiasis of trachea, bronchi or lungs) Extrapulmonary tuberculosis Kaposi sarcoma Cytomegalovirus infection (retinitis or infection of other organs) Central nervous system toxoplasmosis HIV encephalopathy WHO clinical staging of HIV disease in adults and adolescents (3/4)

16 WHO clinical staging of HIV disease in adults and adolescents (4/4) Clinical stage 4Extrapulmonary cryptococcosis including meningitis Disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy Chronic cryptosporidiosis Chronic isosporiasis Disseminated mycosis (extrapulmonary histoplasmosis, coccidiomycosis) Recurrent septicaemia (including non-typhoidal Salmonella) Lymphoma (cerebral or B cell non-Hodgkin) Invasive cervical carcinoma Atypical disseminated leishmaniasis Symptomatic HIV-associated nephropathy or HIV-associated cardiomyopathy

17 Summary HIV targets cells with the CD4 receptor Reduction in number of CD4+ cells destroys the immune system of the host Patients with low CD4+ cell count are susceptible to many infections WHO Clinical Staging criteria can be used to prioritize need for preventive therapy as well as when to start or review ART


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