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Naming Ions. What is a Monatomic Ion?  A monotomic ion consists of a single atom with a positive or negative charge resulting from the loss or gain of.

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Presentation on theme: "Naming Ions. What is a Monatomic Ion?  A monotomic ion consists of a single atom with a positive or negative charge resulting from the loss or gain of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Naming Ions

2 What is a Monatomic Ion?  A monotomic ion consists of a single atom with a positive or negative charge resulting from the loss or gain of valence electrons  A cation is an ion with a positive charge. Metals in groups 1A, 2A, and 3A form a cation with the same charge as their group number  The names of cations in these groups is the name of the element followed by ion or cation.  Example: Na + is sodium ion or sodium cation  Ca 2+ is calcium ion or calcium cation

3 Naming Anions  An anion is an atom that has gained electrons and thus has a negative charge  The charge of a nonmetal anion in group A is determined by subtracting 8 from the group number.  Elements in group 7A have a charge of -1 (7-8=-1)  The name of an anion is not the same as the element’s name  Anion names have the root of the element name with – ide added to it.  Example: A chlorine ion is called chloride, and oxygen ion in called oxide

4 Practice  Fluorine Ion  Bromine Ion  Selenium Ion  Nitrogen Ion  Fluoride  Bromide  Selenide  Nitride

5 Ions of Transition Metals  Transition metals do not form consitant charges when ioninzing like elements in the A group  They can form multiple ions  Iron can form Fe 2+ and Fe 3+  These cations are named differently than others.  When naming an ion of a transition metal, write the name of the element folowed by it’s charge written in roman numerals following it.  Example: Fe 2+ is written as iron (II) and Fe 3+ is written as iron (III)

6 Exceptions  Some transition metals have only one ionic charge.  The names of these elements do not have a roman numeral  These excepetions include silver (Ag + ), cadmium (Cd 2+ ), and zinc (Zn 2+ )

7 Practice  Pb 2+  Pb 4+  Cr 2+  Cr 3+  lead (II)  lead (IV)  chromium (II)  chromium (III)

8 Polyatomic Ions  A polyatomic ion is an ion composed of more than one atom.  The names of most polyatomic ions in in –ite or –ate.  All polyatomics ending in –ite or –ate contain oxygen

9 ChargeNameFormula 1+ammoniumNH acetateC2H3O2-C2H3O2- 1-chlorateClO hydroxideOH - 1-cyanideCN - 1-nitrateNO nitriteNO perchlorateClO permanganateMnO carbonateCO sulfateSO sulfiteSO phosphitePO phosphatePO 4 3-

10 Adding Hydrogen  When the formula for a polyatomic ion contains hydrogen, it is a combination of an H + ion and another polyatomic ion  H + + CO 3 2- (carbonate) -> HCO 3 - hydrogen carbonate  H + + PO 4 3- (phosphate) -> HPO 4 2- hydrogen phosphate

11 Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions  Naming a compound with a polyatomic ion works the same as with other ionic compounds  Name the cation first then the anion  Use the name of the polyatomic ion when naming.

12 Example

13 Naming and Writing Ionic Compounds

14 What is a Binary Ionic Compound  A binary ionic compound is composed of two elements joined by an ionic bond.  To name a binary ionic compound place the name of the cation first, followed by the name of the anion.  The compound must remain neutral  Example: NaBr would be sodium bromide  Example: CuO would be copper (II) oxide  This is known because the charge of oxygen is a 2-, so copper must have a charge of 2+ for the compound to be neutral

15  Cu 2 O  SnF 2  SnS 2  copper (I) oxide  tin (II) fluoride  tin (IV) fluoride

16 Writing formulas for binary ionic compounds  If you know the name of a binary ionic compound, you can write it’s formula  The net charge of the compound must be zero  First figure out the charge of the atoms in the name of the compound  Then use the charge of one compound as the subscript for the other compound  Then reduce to the lowest whole number ratio

17 Example  Write the formula for calcium sulfide  From the periodic table, the charge of calcium is 2+  From the periodic table, the charge of sulfur is 6 -8 = -2 or S 2-  Ca 2+ and S 2- crossing the charges gives Ca 2 S 2  Reducing to the lowest whole number ratio gives CaS

18 Example  Write the formula for iron (III) oxide  From the name of the ionic compound, the charge of iron is Fe 3+  From the periodic table, the charge of oxygen is 6 -8 = -2 or O 2-  Fe 3+ and O 2- crossing the charges gives Fe 2 O 3

19 Practice  copper (II) sulfide  potassium nitride  CuS K3NK3N

20 Compounds with Polyatomic Ions  Compounds with polyatomic ions behave the same as those without  The method for writing their formula is the same as ordinary ionic compounds, except you look up the charge from a table of polyatomic ions instead of the periodic table

21 Example  Write the formula for calcium nitrate  From the periodic table, the charge of calcium is 2+  From the polyatomic table, the charge of nitrate is 1-  Ca 2+ and NO 3 - crossing the charges gives Ca(NO 3 ) 2  For a polyatomic ion, the subscript is written on the outside of the parenthesis


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