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Ions & Ionic Compound. += Na Cl NaCl  A compound is a pure substance made up of two or more elements in which the elements are chemically combined.

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Presentation on theme: "Ions & Ionic Compound. += Na Cl NaCl  A compound is a pure substance made up of two or more elements in which the elements are chemically combined."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ions & Ionic Compound

2 += Na Cl NaCl  A compound is a pure substance made up of two or more elements in which the elements are chemically combined

3  Two types of compounds: Ionic and Molecular  Ionic compounds: composed of positive and negative ions

4  An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has either a positive charge or a negative charge

5  Ions form when atoms gain or lose electrons to become stable  A atom is stable when the valence shell is full

6 = Na  Sodium loses one electron to become stable  Results in an ion that has a positive charge x

7  The symbol “+” is written as a superscript to indicate that the sodium has a charge of 1+ Na +

8 = Cl  Chlorine gains one electron to become stable  Results in an ion with a negative charge

9  The symbol “-” is written as a superscript to indicate that the chlorine ion has a charge of 1- Cl -

10  Both ions have a full valence shell containing the maximum number of electrons possible  This new arrangement of valence electrons has less energy than the previous arrangement and is stable

11  When an atom gives up one or more electrons it becomes positive  Called a cation “cat-eye-on”

12  When an atom gains one or more electron it become negative  Called an anion (“an-eye-on”)

13 Ca+ions are posi+ive Anions are negative

14  Write the symbol of the element and show the ion charge as a superscript  Example: the symbol of a calcium ion is Ca 2+  When an ion has a charge of 1+ or 1- the symbol has no number in the superscript, such as Na + or F -

15  When an element can form only one type of ion, the ion has the same name as the element  Eg: Ca 2+ = calcium ion Ca 20p 20n +2

16  A multivalent element is an element that can form an ion in more than one way  Example: An atom of copper can form two different ions: Cu + or Cu 2+

17  The name of an ion of a multivalent element always contains a Roman numeral that indicates the ion charge  I = 1  II = 2  III = 3  IV = 4  V = 5  VI = 6

18  For example, Cu+ is named copper(I) (read as “copper one”)  Cu2+ is named copper(II) (read as “copper two”)  Only multivalent metals have Roman numerals in their names

19  A nonmetal that has gained electrons to become an ion has the the same name as the element but with the ending changed to -ide  Eg: Cl - = chloride ion

20 nitrogen  nitride oxygen  oxide fluorine  fluoride phosphorous  phosphide sulfur  sulfide chlorine  chloride bromine  bromide iodine  iodide

21  Metal atoms tend to lose electrons  Non-metal atoms tend to gain electrons

22  The farther the valence electron is from its positive nucleus, the more easily it is removed and the more reactive the atom is

23  Reactivity generally increases for cations as you move down the periodic table  Example: potassium is more reactive than sodium Lithium Sodium Potassium Rubidium Cesium

24 reactivity increases Li K Na

25  Reactivity generally increases for cations as you move down the periodic table.  But why? Li K Na Electrons that are further away from the nucleus are more easily lost. Thus atoms with more orbitals will be more reactive.

26  Reactivity generally decreases for anions as you move down the periodic table  Example: fluorine is more reactive than chlorine Fluorine Bromine Iodine Astatine Chlorine

27 reactivity increases Cl F

28  Reactivity generally decreases for anions as you move down the periodic table  But why? Cl F Elements whose valence shell is closer to the nucleus will gain electrons more readily because they are closer to the nucleus. Negative electrons have a stronger attraction for the positive nucleus when the valence shell is closer to the nucleus.

29 A metal atom that has lost electrons (cation) and a nonmetal atom that has gained electrons (anion) will have the same number of electrons as its nearest noble gas.

30  An metal atom that has lost electrons (cation) will have the same number of electrons as its nearest noble gas.

31  For example, neon is the closest noble gas in the periodic table to sodium, magnesium and aluminum

32  The cations Na +, Mg 2+, and Al 3+ all have the same number of electrons as atoms of neon.  This relationship is known as being isoelectronic (having the same number of electrons). Na 11p 12n +1 Al 13p 14n +3 Mg 12p 12n +2 Ne 10p 10n

33  Apply concept to anions  For example, neon is the closest noble gas in the periodic table to nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine

34  Prove that these atoms are isoelectronic by drawing the Bohr diagrams. NeN 3- O 2- F-F-

35  In general, an ionic compound consists of a metal and nonmetal  It is more accurate to say that ionic compounds form when atoms of different elements transfer electrons resulting in ions of opposite charges.  Thus there is always an electron donor and acceptor.

36 += Na Cl NaCl  For example, this process occurs when atoms of sodium metal (Na) combine with atoms of chlorine (Cl) to form sodium chloride (NaCl), or table salt

37  During the formation of NaCl, one electron is transferred from a sodium atom to a chlorine atom

38 In general, a cation will react with an anion to acquire a full valence shell

39 The attraction between the cation and the anion is known as an ionic bond. This bond is what holds the ionic compound together.

40  At room temperature, most are hard, brittle solids that can be crushed

41 Ionic compounds form crystals that have an alternating arrangement of positively charged ions and negatively charged ions, so that when they break their edges are well-defined

42 In an ionic crystal, every ion is attracted to every other ion in the crystal. As a result, ionic crystals have very high melting points ex.) NaCl melts at 800 o C In an ionic crystal, every ion is attracted to every other ion in the crystal. As a result, ionic crystals have very high melting points ex.) NaCl melts at 800 o C

43  When an ionic compound dissolves in water, the crystal structure breaks down and the ions become free to move.

44  Solutions of ionic compounds can conduct electricity

45 Univalent Ionic Compounds are compounds where the metal ion only has one possible charge.

46 1.Name the metal ion first The name of the metal ion is the same as the element name Example: in KBr, the name of the K + ion is potassium 2.Name the non-metal ion second When a non-metal becomes a negative ion, the ending of its name changes to “ide” Example: a bromine atom become bromide ion (Br - ) 3.The formulas of ionic compounds often contain numbers called subscripts which can be ignored when determining the name. Example: Na 3 P is sodium phosphide

47 Example Problem 1: Write the name of the ionic compound ZnF 2 1.Name the metal ion: Zn forms only one type of ion (Zn 2+ ), so the name is zinc 2.Name the non-metal ion: The atom is fluorine so the ion is fluoride 3.Combine the names: ZnF 2 = zinc fluoride

48 Multivalent Ionic Compounds are compounds where the metal ion only has two or more possible charges.

49 1.Identify all the possible charges of the ions. Example: FeO Fe can be Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ O is O 2- 2.Determine which charge on the multivalent ion is needed to make the compound neutral Example: Need to use Fe 2+ to balance O 2-

50 Although ionic compounds are made of charged particles, the compound itself has no net charge All ion charges of an ionic compound must add up to zero The positive and negative charges in an ionic compound must be equal

51 1.Identify all the possible charges of the ions. Example: FeO Fe can be Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ O is O 2- 2.Determine which charge on the multivalent ion is needed to make the compound neutral Example: Need to use Fe 2+ to balance O 2- 3.Name the metal ion indicating the charge in brackets using Roman numerals 1 = I, 2 = II, 3 = III, 4 = I V, 5 = V 4.Name the non-metal ion changing the ending to ‘ide’ Example: FeO = Iron ( II ) oxide

52 Example Problem 2: Write the name of the ionic compound MnCl 4 1.Identify the ions that form the compound: Mn 2+ or Mn 4+ and Cl - 2.Determine the charge of the multivalent ion that would make the compound neutral. Cl 4 means there are 4 x Cl - = a total charge of 4- Would need to use Mn 4+ 3.Name the metal ion indicating the charge using Roman numerals in brackets and adding the nonmetal –ide. Manganese ( I V) iodide

53  Poly = 2 or more  Atomic = atoms  A polyatomic ion is a group of atoms, usually of different elements, that act as a single ion  Example: one atom of sulphur and four atoms of oxygen form the polyatomic ion called sulphate, or SO42-

54  Similar polyatomic ions are named using the suffixes “-ate” or “-ite”  Example: NO3- is nitrate; NO2- is nitrite  Most common polyatomic ions have a negative charge  However, the ammonium ion NH4+ has a positive charge

55 NameFormula ammoniumNH 4 + carbonateCO 3 2- bicarbonateHCO 3 - hydroxideOH - nitrateNO 3 - nitriteNO 2 - permanganateMnO 4 - phosphatePO 4 3- phosphitePO 3 3- sulphateSO 4 2- sulphiteSO 3 2-

56 Example Problem 3: Write the name of the ionic compound LiHCO 3 1.Name the metal/positive ion: Example: Li + = lithium 2.Identify the polyatomic ion (use table): Example: HCO 3 - = hydrogen carbonate 3.Combine the names. Do not change the polyatomic ending. LiHCO 3 = lithium hydrogen carbonate

57 1.Identify the charge of the ions in the compound Example: Calcium chloride Ca 2+ and Cl - 2.Determine the number of positive and negative ions needed to make the compound neutral Need 2 Cl - to balance 1 Ca 2+ 3.Write the metal atom first. Use subscript to indicate the number of ions if it is more than 1. Make sure to use on the lowest common multiple. Calcium chloride = CaCl 2 Wrong: Ca 2 Cl 4

58 Example Problem 4: Write the chemical formula for Bismuth (V) Phosphide. Bi 5+ and P 3- How many of each do we need to make the compound neutral? Write the chemical formula using subscripts as needed.

59 1.Identify the charge of the ions in the compound Example: Calcium chlorate Ca 2+ and ClO Determine the number of positive and negative ions needed to make the compound neutral Need 2 ClO 4 - to balance 1 Ca 2+ 3.Write the metal atom first. If subscripts are needed for the polyatomic ion, place a bracket around it first. Make sure to use on the lowest common multiple. Calcium chlorate = Ca(ClO 4 ) 2

60 Example Problem 5: Write the chemical formula for arsenic (III) acetate. As 3+ and C 2 H 3 O 2 - How many of each do we need to make the compound neutral? Write the chemical formula using subscripts and brackets as needed.


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