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Unit 5: Bonding and Inorganic Nomenclature Chemistry NaClO 3 Fe(ClO 3 ) 2 lithium nitrate lithium nitride lithium nitrite lead (II) sulfide barium sulfide.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 5: Bonding and Inorganic Nomenclature Chemistry NaClO 3 Fe(ClO 3 ) 2 lithium nitrate lithium nitride lithium nitrite lead (II) sulfide barium sulfide."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Unit 5: Bonding and Inorganic Nomenclature Chemistry NaClO 3 Fe(ClO 3 ) 2 lithium nitrate lithium nitride lithium nitrite lead (II) sulfide barium sulfide sulfur dioxide Fe(ClO 3 ) 3 NO 2 N 2 O 4 N 2 O 5

3 Chemical Bonding Ionic Bonds: atoms give up or gain e – and are attracted to each other by coulombic attraction Na Na + Cl Cl – loses e – gains e – Na + + Cl – NaCl K + + NO 3 – KNO 3 ionic compounds = salts where NO 3 – is a polyatomic ion: a charged group of atoms that stay together

4 Properties of Salts 1. very hard 2. high melting points 3. brittle each ion is bonded to several oppositely charged ions many bonds must be broken with sufficient force, like atoms are brought next to each other and repel calcite

5 Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds chemical formula: To write an ionic compound’s formula, we need: 1. the two types of ions 2. the charge on each ion Na + and F – Ba 2+ and O 2– Na + and O 2– Ba 2+ and F – shows types of atoms and how many of each NaF BaO Na 2 O BaF 2 (i.e., cations and anions) has neutral charge;

6 O 2- K+K+ K+K+ Mg 2+ Br - K Br potassium atom bromine atom e-e- e-e- Br - K+K+ potassium ion bromide ion potassium bromide KBr MgBr 2 K2OK2O magnesium bromide potassium oxide Notice that the pink pieces are cations (metals) and the blue are anions (non-metals) 1 Mg 2+ 2 Br -

7 Chemical Bonding Activity Examples Na + Pb 4+ OH - Mg 2+ OH - N 3- Pb 4+ N 3- Pb 4+ N 3- Pb 4+ N 3- Pb 4+ N 3- Pb 3 N 4 1 Mg 2+ 2 OH - Mg OH 2 1 Na + 1 OH - NaOH

8 charge on cation / anion “becomes” subscript of anion / cation ** Warning: Al 3+ and O 2– Ba 2+ and S 2– In 3+ and Br 1– Reduce to lowest terms Al O Ba S In Br 2 3 2 2 3 1 Al 2 O 3 BaS InBr 3 criss-cross rule:

9 Writing Formulas w/Polyatomic Ions Parentheses are required only when you need more than one “bunch” of a particular polyatomic ion Ba 2+ and SO 4 2– Mg 2+ and NO 2 – NH 4 + and ClO 3 – Sn 4+ and SO 4 2– Fe 3+ and Cr 2 O 7 2– NH 4 + and N 3– BaSO 4 Mg(NO 2 ) 2 NH 4 ClO 3 Sn(SO 4 ) 2 Fe 2 (Cr 2 O 7 ) 3 (NH 4 ) 3 N

10 1+ Charges Reminder! Group 1: Group 2: Group 3: Group 5: Group 6: Group 7: Group 8: 2+ 3+ 3– 2– 1– 0 1+ 2+ 3+ 3– 2– 1– 0

11 Inorganic Nomenclature potassium nitrate KNO 3 sodium hydroxide NaOH dinitrogen monoxide N2ON2O copper (II) sulfate CuSO 4

12 Ionic Compounds (cation/anion combos) Fixed-Charge Cations with Elemental Anions The fixed-charge cations are: groups 1, 2, 13, Ag + and Zn 2+ i.e., “pulled off the Table” anions 1+ 2+ 3+ 3– 2– 1–

13 Fixed-Charge Exceptions Start with Al Go backwards down the stairs Decrease the charge after each stair Al 13 Zn 30 Ag 47 3+ 2+ + 3+

14 Li 3 H1H1 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac 89 1 2 3 4 5 6 7   Fixed-charge cations Variable-charge cations Elemental anions 1+ 2+ 3+1-2-3-

15 A. To name, given the formula: 2. Use name of anion (it has the ending “ide”) 1. Use name of cation NaF BaO Na 2 O BaF 2 sodium fluoride barium oxide sodium oxide barium fluoride Na Ba 1+ 2+ 3– 2– 1– 3+

16 1. Write symbols for the two types of ions 2. Balance charges to write formula silver sulfide zinc phosphide calcium iodide B. To write formula, given the name: Ag + S 2– Ag 2 S Zn 2+ P 3– Zn 3 P 2 I – Ca 2+ CaI 2 Ca Ag Zn 1+ 2+ 3– 2– 1– 3+

17 Variable-Charge Cations with Elemental Anions The variable-charge cations are: i.e., “pulled off the Table” anions Pb, Sn, and the transition metals (but – of course! – not Ag or Zn)

18 iron oxide A. To name, given the formula: 1.Figure out charge on cation. 2. Write name of cation. 3. Write Roman numerals in ( ) to show cation’s charge. 4. Write name of anion. FeO Fe 2 O 3 CuBr CuBr 2 iron oxide Cu Fe Stock System of nomenclature Fe ? O 2– iron (II) oxide Fe ? O 2– iron (III) oxide copper bromide copper bromide Cu ? Br – copper (I) bromide Cu 2+ Br – copper (II) bromide Fe ? Br – O 2– O 2– Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Cu + Cu ? - 6

19 Roman Numeral Review Greek Number Roman Numeral 1I 2II 3III 4IV 5V 6VI 7VII 8VIII 9IX 10X NumberRoman Numeral 1I 5V 10X 50L 100C

20 B. To find the formula, given the name: 1. Write symbols for the two types of ions. 2. Balance charges to write formula. cobalt (III) chloride tin (IV) oxide tin (II) oxide Co Sn Co 3+ Cl – CoCl 3 Sn 4+ O 2– O 2– Sn 2+ SnO 2 SnO

21 Traditional System of Nomenclature …used historically (and still some today) to name compounds w/multiple-charge cations To use: 1. Use Latin root of cation. 2. Use -ic ending for higher charge; -ous ending for lower charge. 3. Then say name of anion, as usual.

22 ElementLatin root-ic-ous gold, Auaur-Au 3+ Au + lead, Pbplumb-Pb 4+ Pb 2+ tin, Snstann-Sn 4+ Sn 2+ copper, Cucupr-Cu 2+ Cu + iron, Feferr-Fe 3+ Fe 2+ Write formulas: cuprous sulfide auric nitride ferrous fluoride Write names: Pb 3 P 4 Pb 3 P 2 SnCl 4 Cu + S 2– Cu 2 S Au 3+ N 3- AuN Fe 2+ F–F– FeF 2 cuprous sulfide auric ferrous fluoride Pb 3 P 4 Pb 3 P 2 Sn P 3– Pb ? Pb ? P 3– Pb 4+ plumbic phosphide Pb 2+ plumbous phosphide Cl – Sn 4+ Sn ? stannic chloride

23 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions Insert name of ion where it should go in the compound’s name. Write formulas: iron (III) nitrite ammonium phosphide ammonium chlorate zinc phosphate lead (II) permanganate iron (III) nitrite ammonium phosphide ammonium chlorate zinc phosphate lead (II) permanganate Fe 3+ NO 2 – Fe(NO 2 ) 3 NH 4 + NH 4 + P 3– (NH 4 ) 3 P ClO 3 – NH 4 ClO 3 Zn 2+ PO 4 3– Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Pb 2+ MnO 4 – Pb(MnO 4 ) 2

24 Write names: (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 AgBrO 3 (NH 4 ) 3 N U(CrO 4 ) 3 Cr 2 (SO 3 ) 3 (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 AgBrO 3 (NH 4 ) 3 N U(CrO 4 ) 3 Cr 2 (SO 3 ) 3 ammonium thiosulfate silver bromate ammonium nitride U ? CrO 4 2– CrO 4 2– CrO 4 2– uranium (VI) chromate Cr ? Cr ? Cr 3+ SO 3 2– SO 3 2– SO 3 2– chromium (III) sulfite U 6+

25 Covalent Bonds (2 nonmetals) …atoms share e– to get a full valence shell C1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 F1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 Both need 8 valence e - for a full outer shell… otherwise known as the octet rule o 4 valence e- 7 valence e- o x o o C x x x x x x F

26 Draw the Lewis dot structure for the following elements: Si O P B Ar Br 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 2 4 valence e- 6 valence e- 5 valence e- 3 valence e- 8 valence e- 7 valence e-

27 Notice any trends…?

28 Drawing Lewis Structures Lewis structure: 1. Two shared e – make a single covalent bond, four make a double bond, etc. 2. unshared pairs: pairs of unbonded valence e – 3. Each atom needs a full outer shell, i.e., 8 e –. Exception: H needs 2 e – a model of a covalent molecule that shows all of the valence e –

29 C F F F F Let’s bond two F atoms together… Each F has 7 v.e. and each needs 1 more e- F F F F Now let’s bond C and F atoms together… C F F F F carbon tetrafluoride (CF 4 ) F2F2

30 mono Covalent Compounds -- contain two types of ** Key: Use Greek prefixes to indicate how many atoms of each element, but don’t use “mono” on first element. nonmetals FORGET CHARGES! What to do: 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 10 – di tri tetra penta hexa hepta octa nona deca

31 EXAMPLES: carbon dioxide CO dinitrogen trioxide N2O5N2O5 carbon tetrachloride NI 3 CO 2 carbon monoxide N 2 O 3 dinitrogen pentoxide CCl 4 nitrogen triiodide

32 Dihydrogen Monoxide: A Tale of Danger and Irresponsibility major component of acid rain found in all cancer cells inhalation can be deadly excessive ingestion results in acute physical symptoms: e.g., frequent urination, bloated sensation, profuse sweating often an industrial byproduct of chemical reactions; dumped wholesale into rivers and lakes

33 butter (consist of two or more nonmetal elements) covalent compounds = molecular compounds -- have lower melting points than do ionic compounds

34 These are much weaker than ionic, covalent, or metallic bonds, but very important in determining states of matter, boiling and melting points, and molecular shape (among other things). Other Types of Bonds dipole-dipole forces hydrogen bonds London dispersion forces ion-dipole forces DNA boiling H 2 O

35 In insulators (like wood), the v.e – are attached to particular atoms. Metallic Bonds In metals, valence shells of atoms overlap, so v.e – are free to travel between atoms through material. Not so in metals.

36 All due to free-moving v.e –. Properties of Metals ductile conduct heat and electricity malleable

37 Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula Compound Molecular Formula Empirical Formula glucoseC 6 H 12 O 6 propaneC3H8C3H8 butaneC 4 H 10 naphthaleneC 10 H 8 sucroseC 12 H 22 O 11 octaneC 8 H 18 lowest-terms formula shows the true number and type of atoms in a m’cule CH 2 O C3H8C3H8 C2H5C2H5 C5H4C5H4 C 12 H 22 O 11 C4H9C4H9

38 Nomenclature Review Flow Chart

39 Metal + Nonmetal? Formula  Name? Ionic Covalent Two Nonmetals? Multiple Single Use Prefixes!!! *Mono* Hexa Di Hepta Tri Octa Tetra Nona Penta Deca 1.Write name of cation (metal) 2.Determine the charge on the metal by balancing the (-) charge from the anion 3.Write the charge of the metal in Roman Numerals and put in parentheses 4.Write name of anion (Individual anions need –ide ending!) Steps 1 & 4 ONLY d,f-block Pb,Sn Columns 1, 2, 13 Ag +, Zn 2+ (Including NH 4 + ) Metal Type? Add –ide to 2 nd element

40 Name  Formula? No Prefixes? Prefixes? 1.Determine the ions present and the charge on each (Roman Numeral = cation charge, otherwise use PT) 2.Balance formula (criss-cross) 3.Reduce subscripts (if needed) 1.FORGET CHARGES!!! 2.Use prefixes to determine subscripts 3.Do NOT reduce subscripts! Ionic Covalent


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