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Atoms, Molecules, and Ions AP Chapter 2 Part 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Symbols of Elements Elements are symbolized by one or two letters.

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Presentation on theme: "Atoms, Molecules, and Ions AP Chapter 2 Part 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Symbols of Elements Elements are symbolized by one or two letters."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions AP Chapter 2 Part 2

2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Symbols of Elements Elements are symbolized by one or two letters.

3 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Atomic Number All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons: The atomic number (Z)

4 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Atomic Mass The mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) is the total number of protons and neutrons in the atom.

5 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Isotopes: Atoms of the same element with different masses. Isotopes have different numbers of neutrons C 12 6 C 13 6 C 14 6 C

6 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Isotopes Elements occur in nature as mixtures of isotopes. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons

7 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Isotopes of Hydrogen

8 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Atomic Mass Atomic and molecular masses can be measured with great accuracy with a mass spectrometer.

9 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions IsotopeSymb ol Composition of the nucleus % in nature Carbon C6 protons 6 neutrons 98.89% Carbon C6 protons 7 neutrons 1.11% Carbon C6 protons 8 neutrons <0.01% Atomic mass is the average of all the naturally isotopes of that element. Carbon =

10 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Average Mass Because in the real world we use large amounts of atoms and molecules, we use average masses in calculations. Average mass is calculated from the isotopes of an element weighted by their relative abundances.

11 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Periodic Table: A systematic catalog of elements. Elements are arranged in order of atomic number.

12 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Periodicity When one looks at the chemical properties of elements, one notices a repeating pattern of reactivities.

13 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Metals Conductors Lose electrons Malleable and ductile

14 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Nonmetals Brittle Gain electrons Covalent bonds

15 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Semi-metals or Metalloids

16 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Alkali Metals

17 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Alkaline Earth Metals

18 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Halogens

19 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Transition metals

20 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Noble Gases

21 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Inner Transition Metals

22 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

23 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chemical Formulas The subscript to the right of the symbol of an element tells the number of atoms of that element in one molecule of the compound.

24 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Molecular Compounds Molecular compounds are composed of molecules and almost always contain only nonmetals.

25 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Diatomic Molecules These seven elements occur naturally as molecules containing two atoms.

26 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Types of Formulas Empirical formulas give the lowest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound. Molecular formulas give the exact number of atoms of each element in a compound.

27 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Types of Formulas Structural formulas show the order in which atoms are bonded. Perspective drawings also show the three-dimensional array of atoms in a compound.

28 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Ions When atoms lose or gain electrons, they become ions.  Cations are positive and are formed by elements on the left side of the periodic chart.  Anions are negative and are formed by elements on the right side of the periodic chart.

29 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Ionic Bonds Ionic compounds (such as NaCl) are generally formed between metals and nonmetals.

30 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Writing Formulas Because compounds are electrically neutral, one can determine the formula of a compound this way:  The charge on the cation becomes the subscript on the anion.  The charge on the anion becomes the subscript on the cation.  If these subscripts are not in the lowest whole- number ratio, divide them by the greatest common factor.

31 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Common Cations

32 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Common Anions

33 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Inorganic Nomenclature Write the name of the cation. If the anion is an element, change its ending to -ide; if the anion is a polyatomic ion, simply write the name of the polyatomic ion. If the cation can have more than one possible charge, write the charge as a Roman numeral in parentheses.

34 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Inorganic Nomenclature

35 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Patterns in Oxyanion Nomenclature When there are two oxyanions involving the same element:  The one with fewer oxygens ends in -ite NO 2 − : nitrite ; SO 3 2− : sulfite  The one with more oxygens ends in -ate NO 3 − : nitrate; SO 4 2− : sulfate

36 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Patterns in Oxyanion Nomenclature The one with the second fewest oxygens ends in -ite  ClO 2 − : chlorite The one with the second most oxygens ends in -ate  ClO 3 − : chlorate

37 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Patterns in Oxyanion Nomenclature The one with the fewest oxygens has the prefix hypo- and ends in -ite  ClO − : hypochlorite The one with the most oxygens has the prefix per- and ends in -ate  ClO 4 − : perchlorate

38 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in -ide, change the ending to -ic acid and add the prefix hydro- :  HCl: hydrochloric acid  HBr: hydrobromic acid  HI: hydroiodic acid

39 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in -ite, change the ending to -ous acid:  HClO: hypochlorous acid  HClO 2 : chlorous acid

40 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in -ate, change the ending to -ic acid:  HClO 3 : chloric acid  HClO 4 : perchloric acid

41 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Nomenclature of Binary Compounds The less electronegative atom is usually listed first. A prefix is used to denote the number of atoms of each element in the compound (mono- is not used on the first element listed, however.)

42 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Nomenclature of Binary Compounds The ending on the more electronegative element is changed to -ide.  CO 2 : carbon dioxide  CCl 4 : carbon tetrachloride

43 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Nomenclature of Binary Compounds If the prefix ends with a or o and the name of the element begins with a vowel, the two successive vowels are often elided into one: N 2 O 5 : dinitrogen pentoxide


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