18RadioactivityRadioactivity is the spontaneous emission of radiation by an atom.It was first observed by Henri BecquerelFollowed by Marie and Pierre Curie.Shared 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics
19Radioactivity Three types were discovered by Rutherford: particles, Alpha, bent by electric field, +2 charge particles, Beta, bent by electric field, - 1 charge rays, Gamma, unaffected by electric field, no chargeFigure 2.8
20The Atom, circa 1900The prevailing theory was that of the “plum pudding” model, put forward by Thompson.It featured a positive sphere of matter with negative electrons imbedded in it.Figure 2.9
21Discovery of the Nucleus Ernest Rutherford shot particles at a thin sheet of gold foil and observed the pattern of scatter of the particles.Particles were deflected by foil.Figure 2.10
22The Nuclear AtomSince some particles were deflected at large angles, Thompson’s model could not be correct.Rutherford proposed the positive nucleus containing protons.Figure 2.11
23The Nuclear AtomRutherford postulated a very small, dense nucleus with the electrons around the outside of the atom.Most of the volume of the atom is empty space.Figure 2.12
24Other Subatomic Particles Protons discovered by Rutherford, 1919.Neutrons discovered by James Chadwick,1932.
25Subatomic Particles Protons and electrons are have a charge. Protons and neutrons have essentially the same mass.The mass of an electron is so small we ignore it.Table 2.1
32Calculating Average Atomic Mass EX. You have a box containing two sizes of marbles.25% of the marbles have a mass of 2.0 g.75% of the marbles have a mass of 3.0 g.Calculate the average weight of the marble.
49Writing FormulasBecause compounds are electrically neutral, one can determine the formula of a compound this way:The charge on the cation becomes the subscript on the anion.The charge on the anion becomes the subscript on the cation.If these subscripts are not in the lowest whole-number ratio, divide them by the greatest common factor.
55Patterns in Oxyanion Nomenclature When there are two oxyanions involving the same element:The one with fewer oxygens ends in -ite.NO2− : nitrite; SO32− : sulfiteThe one with more oxygens ends in -ate.NO3− : nitrate; SO42− : sulfate-ate is GREAT and –ite is LIGHT
57Patterns in Oxyanion Nomenclature The one with the fewest oxygens has the prefix hypo- and ends in -ite.ClO− : hypochloriteThe one with the most oxygens has the prefix per- and ends in -ate.ClO4− : perchlorate