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Unit 4 Nomenclature. What’s Coming??  Nomenclature  How we name stuff  Common ions.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 Nomenclature. What’s Coming??  Nomenclature  How we name stuff  Common ions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4 Nomenclature

2 What’s Coming??  Nomenclature  How we name stuff  Common ions

3 Nomenclature Common Names  Sugar  Epsom salts  Gypsum  Laughing gas TOO MANY CHEMICALS! The Naming System (IUPAC)  Tells us about the composition  Easy to construct the chemical formula  Inorganic vs. Organic

4 Making Ions  Ion charges are based off of the valence electrons  Metals LOSE electrons  They become +  Called cations  Non-metals GAIN electrons  They become –  Called anions  Electrons are lost or gained to obtain an octet  Octet = 8 in the valence shell  Transition metals are goofy

5 Molecular Formulas  The formula that indicates the specific ratio of the different atoms  Tells us how many of each atom we need to have a specific compound

6 Empirical Formulas ALL ABOUT THE RATIO: LOWEST common denominator

7 Law of Definite Proportions  A given compound ALWAYS displays EXACTLY the same ratio/proportion of elements  H 2 O  CO 2  C 6 H 12 O 6

8 Naming Binary Compounds  Binary Compounds  Composed of 2 elements  Compounds contain either  Metal and Non-metal – ionic compound  2 Non-metals  Three types of binary compounds  Representative Ionic – The metal forms only 1 type of cation and is a representative metal  Transition Ionic– The metal forms more than 1 type of cation and is a transition metal  Covalent– Two non-metals are joined together by a sharing of electrons

9 Rules for Representative Ionic  The cation is named first, the anion is named second  A cation takes its name from the name of the element.  An anion is named by taking the root of the element name and adding –ide to the end of the word.

10 Representative Ionic  Name the following compounds and indicate which ions and charges are present. Be sure to label each ion type.  CsF  AlCl 3  MgI 2  CaO  KBr

11 Rules for Transition Ionic  Transition metals can have multiple charges…hence TRANSITION!  Follow the same rules as Rep. Ionic but….  You must indicate the charge of the cation  Use roman numerals and parentheses  Fe +2 is iron (II)…  Finding the cation charge can be difficult  Find the anion charge first and balance using the given ratios

12 Transition Ionic  Provide the names for the following compounds. Be sure to indicate ion charge and to use both naming systems.  CuCl 2  HgO  Fe 2 O 3  MnO 2  PbCl 4

13 Rules for Covalent  The first element in the formula is named first and the full element name is used.  The second element is named as though it were an anion.  Prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms present (see table).  The prefix “mono” is never used for the first element, it is assumed. Latin Pre-fixes  Mono = 1  Di = 2  Tri = 3  Tetra = 4  Penta = 5  Hexa = 6  Hepta = 7  Octa = 8

14 Covalent  Name the following compounds.  BF 3  NO  N 2 O 5

15 Polyatomic Ions  Polyatomic ions – ions made of 2 or more atoms  These ions are assigned special names which must be looked up or memorized.  I will provide you with a chart that you may use for your assessments.  These ions are named using similar rules to ionic compounds.

16 Polyatomic Ions  Name the following compounds. Indicate the charge on each of the ions.  Na 2 CO 3  CsClO 4  CuSO 4

17 Rules for Naming Acids  If the anion does not contain oxygen, the acid is named with the prefix “hydro” and the suffix “ic” is attached to the root name for the element.  When the anion contains oxygen, the name is taken from polyatomic anion with a suffix of “ic” or “ous”.  When the anion ends in “ate”, the suffix “ic” is used.  When the anion ends in “ite”, the suffix “ous” is used.

18 Acids  Name the following acids. Indicate how many hydronium (H + ) ions can be produced.  HCl  H 2 SO 4  H 2 SO 3  H 3 PO 4  HF

19 Nomenclature Etc. Quiz 1)BF 3 2)HClO 4 3)MgBr 2 4)Co 2 O 3 5) Nickel (III) Sulfide 6) Barium Phosphide 7) Phosphorus tetroxide 8) Manganese (IV) Phosphate Provide the #p+, #n 0, valence e-, core e- for the following elements in the neutral state: 9) Si ) Se ) C ) W - 190


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