Presentation on theme: "10 July, 2014 シドニー日本語教育国際研究大会 International Conference on Japanese Language Education Acquiring Japanese as a second language: Processability Theory and."— Presentation transcript:
110 July, 2014シドニー日本語教育国際研究大会International Conference on Japanese Language EducationAcquiring Japanese as a second language: Processability Theory and its applications to pedagogy 第二言語としての日本語習得：処理可能性理論とその教育分野への応用Satomi KawaguchiUniversity of Western SydneyMARCS Institute and School of Humanities & Communication Arts
2Outline1. Introduction & some background 2. Processability Theory (PT) 3. Developmental stages (PT) in Japanese L2 Morphology Syntax: the Prominence Hypothesis the Lexical Mapping Hypothesis 4. Promoting higher structures (beyond intermediate level) 5. Emergence of a structure and its automatization 6. Digital technologies & evaluation of language development using PT 7. Concluding remarks
3IntroductionProcessability Theory (Pienemann 1998): A theory of SLA focusing on L2 developmentTheory-Practice-Evaluation link in teaching and learning Japanese L2
4Short history of Processability Theory (PT) PT originates in the ZISA (Zweitsprachenwerb Italianisher und Spanisher Arbeiter) projectIt produced ‘one of the most important bodies of SLA research to date’ Larsen-Freeman & Long (1991, p. 270) in terms of: data, methodology and SLA theory developmentWhen: late Seventies ~ early EightiesWho directed by Jurgen Meisel, with Harald Clahsen and Manfred Pienemann (1983); see also Meisel, Clahsen and Pienemann (1981)Informants: ZISA studied Italian and Spanish adult guest workers acquiring German as a second language.Where: mainly at the University of Hamburg (Germany) under the direction of Jurgen Meisel, supported by the Volkswagen Foundation.
5SVO > ADV > SEP > INV > V-END ZISA: findingsAfter an initial period of production, characterised by single words and formulaic expressions, learners did not abandon one rule for the next but accumulated rules, adding new ones while retaining the old ones.All learners followed the same five-stage developmental sequence (despite individual differences and different language background)All learners acquired these five rules in the same sequence. These rules formed an implicational scale: which means that the acquisition of a rule implies the acquisition of the earlier rule(s). They were called (shorthand name):After Brown’s study on L1 finding a fixed developmental paths, many L2 researchers investigatated if this is true with L2.SVO > ADV > SEP > INV > V-END
6Was this sequence replicated in other studies? And indeed, YES, this basic sequence of acquisition of GSL word order, was also confirmed for immigrant children and in studies of acquisition of German (GFL) in formal contexts (Eubank 1986, 1987; Jansen 1991; Pienemann 1980, 1981, 1984).GSL=German as a Second LanguageGFL = German as a Foreign Language
7Teachability Hypothesis (Pienemann, 1984; 1988; 1998) This hypothesis addresses the influence of formal instruction on L2 acquisition, i.e., What to teach When. There is a fixed path in L2 acquisition. This sequence should be implicational: Stage 1 < Stage 2 < Stage 3, etc.,Debate on if we should teach syntax, c.f., natural acquisition order in L2 (Dulay & Burt, Krashen, etc.)
10Findings from the teachability experiment Stages cannot be skipped, despite focused instruction, because the cognitive processing of one stage is the prerequisite for the subsequent one.Instruction will be beneficial if it focuses on structures for which the learner is “developmentally ready” (cf. Corder 1967)Corder: instruction is beneficial when it follows natural acquisition order rather than against it.
11ZISA downunder. The empirical basis for English developmental stages: the SAMPLE project (Johnston 1985)The empirical basis was provided by an extensive Australian project carried out by Malcolm Johnston, at the NSW Institute of Technology, supported by the AMES (Dept of Immigration) in the mid-Seventies to mid Eighties.Johnston studied, cross-sectionally 12 Polish and 12 Vietnamese immigrants at a range of times after their arrival in Australia.Bill Bonney was the Dean of the Faculty of Humaities and Social Sciences at the NSW Institute of Technology (now UTS)A linguist (Started a project in 1976 to investigate how immigrants learned English. He proposed to look at immigrants coming from typologically different languages, to find out whether there were any common patterns.Other linguists in the team: Helen Wilson, Bruno Di Biase (FT research assistant recording Spanish-speaking informants), later Malcolm Johnston was employed as a research assistant to look into turkish and Vietnamesethe SAMPLE report = Syntactic and Morphological Progressions in Learners’ English (1984)
12Pieneman working with Johnston, adapted the ZISA Strategies framework to the interpretation of the ESL data collected through SAMPLE and expanded the framework to include English morphological sequences as well as Syntax.Pienemann and Johnston brought about what Michael Long called The Predictive Framework (Larsen-Freeman & Long 1991) that is a framework for SLA which was capable of making predictions to be tested empirically.
13Table 1: POLISH ADULT LEARNERS OF ESL (Johnston 1997, 2000) Table 3: VIETNAMESE ADULT LEARNERS OF ESL (Johnston 1997, 2000)
14Limitations Problems of ZISA The “strategies” as an explanatory principle are not plausible for the human mind.So, Processability Theory adopts processing prerequisites that is, the learner builds up additional processing resources in order to process the L2 and gradually deploys these in an automatic way.
152. Processability Theory (Pienemann 1998) 処理可能性理論 Processability Theory (PT) is a theory of second language processing that formally predicts syntactic & morphological ‘developmental trajectories’ for any given L2 (so it is assumed to work universally).Processability relates to how the L2 is acquired under real-time constraints of speech production, given the limited capacity of the human language processor.
16PT key principleThe key to predicting which grammatical structures are processable - and in which sequence - is which pieces of grammatical information can be exchanged between which constituents given the availability of the different procedures and their storage capacity
17the category procedure the phrasal procedure According to Kempen and Hoenkamp’s (1987) processing procedures and routines in speech generation are activated in the following sequence:lemma accessthe category procedurethe phrasal procedure4. the sentence procedure,5. the subordinate clause procedure - if applicable.
18SentencephrasecategoryLemmaThis hierarchy is related to the requirements of the specific procedural skills needed for the target language (any L2). In this way, predictions can be made for language development that can be tested empirically.
19The task for the learner, then, is to build the language-specific procedures needed to handle the Target Language. These procedures will be different for different languages, but always ordered in the same sequence.
20Two modules of Processability Theory Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) - A psychologically and typologically plausible formal grammar (Bresnan, 2001, and others).Levelt’s (1989, and further developments) model of the Speaker - A broadly shared psycholinguistic model of language generation.This is different from previous processing models
21LFG: We can represent processing procedures required for sentence generation through two LFG principlesObligatory component1. Feature unification/agreement (e.g., tense, word category combination) 2. Mapping (e.g. association between Argument role and Grammatical function such as Agent-Subject)Structural choice at the pragmatic-discourse interface
22These are all obligatory structures First principle: Feature unification (in English) (cf. LFG (Kaplan & Bresnan 1982; Bresnan 2001)3rd person –s: unification in S plural concord: unification in NPStage 5Stage 3NPobjdet Nthese dogsNUM = PL NUM = PLPast –ed: no unification neededThese are all obligatory structuresin English grammarStage 2Lemma: OWNEDconceptual specs.: “OWN“ (SUBJ, OBJ)syntactic category: Vdiacritic features: tense = past
25３．Developmental Stages (PT) in Japanese L2 Morphological acquisition Universal processing procedure5Subordinate clause procedure4The Sentence procedure and the target language word order rules3Phrasal procedure (e.g. Noun Phrase, Verb Phrase)2The lexical procedure (category of the word, e.g. verb, noun)1Words (invariant form)
26Stages of development for Japanese L2 VERBAL MORPHOLOGY <Word/Lemma>Invariant formsSingle words, Formulaeおいしい (oisii)まんが (manga)こんにちは！(konnichiwa)Stage 1PRINCIPLE: NO EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION IS REQUIREDThis stage is non language-specific: everyone can normally learn a word or formula in any language, e.g.tsunami!Native speakers OFTEN use formulas in their speech:… ありがとう (arigatoo)… すみません (sumimasen)
27Stage 2 <Category Procedure> Lexical morphology FORM variation past –masitanegative –masennoun marker –wa, -ga食べます tabe-masu /食べました tabe-masita /食べません tabe-masenPRINCIPLE: NO EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION IS REQUIREDThis stage is language-specific: grammatical features are different from language to language.The learner begins to annotate the grammatical category and the feature/value pairs for words in their mental lexicon e.g.Lexical entry category feature valuetabe-masita verb TENSE PAST
28Stage 3 Phrasal Procedure Verb Combination e.g., 食べてーいます tabe-te imasu してーみます si-te mimasuPRINCIPLE: EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION IN THE VERB PHRASEgrammatical features are exchanged (unified) within the noun phraseDi Biase & Kawaguchi, 2002
29Sakana-ga neko-ni tabe-rare-ta <S- Procedure>Interphrasal morphologyNon-default case markinge.g., passive, causativeStage 4PRINCIPLE:EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION (AT THE S- NODE) BETWEEN PHRASES OF A DIFFERENT KIND (NP and VP)grammatical features are exchanged (unified) at Sentence level. In this case the feature/value exchanged between the NPsubj and the Verb are:Sakana-ga neko-ni tabe-rare-ta“魚が ねこに たべられた”
31Acquisition of Japanese L2 Syntax (Pienemann, Di Biase and Kawaguchi, 2005; Kawaguchi, 2010; Kawaguchi, in press)PT extension adds the developmental dimension of speaker-induced discourse-pragmatic choices (e.g. passive, topicalisation) in syntactic structure.Other attention directing devices – the speaker’s pragmatic choice – may involve the selection of particular word orders for focusing or de-focusing, e.g. null realization of subject, active/passive alternation and so on.
41Lou’s syntactic development based on the Lexical Mapping Hypothesis (Kawaguchi 2009, 2010) stagestructuret1t2t3t4t5t6t7t8t9t10t11t12nondefault mappingcausative4passive1-13BenefactiveIntrincially non- canonical (vi)1/-162/-12/-3default mapping and additonal argum.ditransitivetransitiveintransitive+4/?1+4, ?1104/-195default mappingDitransitive without DAT argument9/-110/-1181627/-1
44SUBJTOP-WA OBJFOC-WA V OBJTOP-WA (S)V 1 STAGESTRUCTURET1T2T3T4T5T6T7T8T9T10T11T12NONCANONICITY INMARKING NOMINALSSUBJTOP-WA OBJFOC-WA VOBJTOP-WA (S)V1XPTOP CANONICALWORD ORDERADJTOP-WA S(O)V/(S)OV2*325ADJ S(O)V5*467CANONICAL WORD ORDERSUBJTOP-WA (O)V9S(O)V / (S)OV1*4*81022112612* SUBJ is not expressedEmpirical Evidence of the Prominence Hypothesis:Lou’s syntactic development based on the Prominence Hypothesis: Declaratives (Kawaguchi, in press)*All SUBJ omission (t1, t2)
45Other empirical evidence JFL adult classroom setting:Longitudinal and cross sectional studies (Kawaguchi 2002, 2005a&b, 2007, 2008, 2010; Di Biase & Kawaguchi 2002, 2012)Child language acquisition of Japanese L2 in a naturalistic environment (Iwasaki 2004, 2008)Adult language acquisition of Japanese L2 in an intensive course (Iwasaki 2013)Bilingual first language acquisition in Japanese-English (Itani-Adams 2005, 2007; 2009, 2011, 2013)
464. Promoting higher structures beyond intermediate level: causative constructions Causatives are considered to be ‘marked’, because main and sub-events are merged into a single clause, and thus may be more difficult to learn.Yet, ability to use such constructions enhances expressivity and pragmatic-cultural appropriateness, and facilitates comprehension.
47Causality may be expressed by simpler sentence structures such as juxtaposition of basic Subject-Object-Verb sequences.‘zangyoo ste kudasai’ to bucho-ga watashi-ni iimashita「残業してください」と部長がわたしに言いました Department chief said to me “please do overtime”However, this is less efficient; the listener must work harder to interpret the pragmatic force of the utterance.
48A cross-sectional study 24 intermediate-advanced university learners of Japanese L2: 16 English L1 and 8 Chinese L1 background learners.
49Implicational table for acquisition of Japanese L2 syntax in the cross-sectional study Kawaguchi 2009; 284
50Stage 2 learners (SOV) Informant 12 (Liz: E L1) わたしは コピーをしたり コーヒーをつくったり ボスはだいきらいです。er. Watasi-wa er kopii-o sitari. Koohii-o tukaitari.. Bosu-wa daikiraidesu“er I do something like photocopying and making coffee.. I hate my boss.”Informant 8 (Yang: C L1)ええと わたしのボス ボスが ボスに コーヒーをつくったり ええと 忙しいです…etto watasi-no bosu bosu-ga bosu-ni koohii-o tukuttari eeto isogasisoodesu“…well my boss, for my boss I make coffee, well I am busy”
51Stage 3 Learners Susan (C) a. ＊お母さんはいつも野菜 食べていました * okaasan-wa itumo yasai tabe-te imasita(lit.)“my mother was always eating vegetables”(intended) “my mother always made me eat vegetables”b. ＊でもボスは彼女に残業 残業し します しました。*demo bosu-wa kanozyo-ni zangyoo.. zangyoo... si. simasu.... Simasita(lit)“but my boss do.. did over time for her”(intended) “but my boss made her work overtime”Some Stage 3 learners, who have not yet acquired non-canonical argument-function mapping, may end up producing sentences involving incorrect mapping conforming to canonical SOV order
52Stage 4 learners Kathy (E)： いつも彼は私にコーヒーを持ってこさせます itsumo kare-wa watasi-ni koohii-o motte ko-sase-masu“He always gets me bring coffee (for him)”.Henry (E)： でも母に食べさせられますdemo haha-ni tabe-sase-rare-masu“but (I) am made to eat vegetables.”Becky (C)： わたしの母は毎日野菜をつくってあげましたが、私は野菜がすきじゃありませんwatasi-no haha-wa maiasa yasai-o tukutte age-masita gawatasi-wa yasai-ga sukija arimasen“my mother cooked vegetables (for me) every morning but I don’t like vegetables”.
53Learners lacking the Sentence-procedure used canonical sentences consistently; orattempted causatives but with incorrect mappingThe learners at Stage 4used canonical sentences; and/orother Stage 4 structures of non-canonical mappingCausative/ Benefactive / Causative-passive√ more structural choices√ more faithful to discourse needs and communicative intentions.
54Language processing efficiency and speed 5. Emergence of a structure and its automatization: Promoting processing efficacyTrace the acquisitional path from emergence to native-like use of a structureLanguage knowledge,Language processing efficiency and speed“there is a gradual shift from using metalinguistic knowledge to using implicit competence” (Paradis, 2004 p.49)
55From emergence to automatization: Information processing in L2 acquisition In SLA, “procedural, not declarative knowledge is the ultimate goal” for the second language learner (e.g., DeKeyser 2007).This means ‘fluent speech’, achieved by automatization (or proceduralization) of skills.
56Learning grammatical knowledge and language skills Emergence Vs Learning grammatical knowledge and language skills Emergence Vs. Automatization in PT“Emergence” of a particular skill or stage ≠ “automatization” of that skillWhen a structure emerges learners may in facttake a long time in producing itbe inaccuratemay perform variably (i.e., the structure is unstable)What happens after the “emergence” of a structure in L2?Picture taken from Lightbown & Spada 1993; 39
57What is automaticity in L2? According to Segalowitz (2003, 2010) automaticity is efficient accurate and stable performance in language production Acquiring a new rule/cognitive skill involves a transition from a stage characterized by purely declarative (explicit) knowledge (knowing “what”) to one characterized by procedural (implicit) knowledge (knowing “how”) (see also Paradis 2004).
58Informants and experiments: Experimental Study on production of Passive structure (non-canonical mapping)Informants and experiments:(A) 23 English speaking 3rd year students of Japanese L2 at UWS received instruction on passive structures.(B) 17 of these students successfully produced Japanese passive in class activity. These ( plus 1 native speaker control) proceeded to two experiments under different conditions:Experiment 1: A self-paced story-tellingExperiment 2: A time-constrained task (Tomlin’s Fish Film)Kawaguchi & Di Biase, 2012
60Active and Passive in Processability Theory ProcedureJapanese (stages)S-procedure(functional assignment)4Passive (non-canonical mapping between thematic roles and grammatical functions)Phrasal3Category2Canonical ActiveWord/Lemma1
61ResultsExperiment 1 A self-paced story telling task Results: 11 out of 17 Japanese L2 learners could produce causatives and/or benefactive and passive structures.
62Experiment 2: Performance with time-constrained (Fish Film) task a. The six learners who did not produce passive with the self-pacedtask did not produce passive with the time-constrained (fish film) task either
63b. The 11 Learners who produced passive with the self-paced story telling task displayed MIXED results with the time-constrained (fish film) task.
64Are the differences among the 11 learners measurable Are the differences among the 11 learners measurable? Sentence production time for Group 1 (novices in the structure)The first group, as represented by Eddy, scored no passives at all in the time-constrained task: regardless of active or passive cues it only produced actives, in a way similar to the six learners who did not produce passives spontaneously in the self-paced task.
65Group 2 Sentence production time (learning effect) This group of learners, represented by Jess, is the only one showing a ‘learning effect’ from the time-constrained task – which elicited a choice between active and passive. The more opportunities they got for production the better they did it. (cf. DeKeyser 2007).
66Group 3 sentence production time (expert users) Group 3 (expert users) behaved like the NS control (next slide). It produced active on active cue and passive on passive cue. It shows no ‘learning effect’ (same as the novices!)
67Sentence production time for all groups NB Expert L2ers take slightly longer than NS.
68Passive sentence production time Passive sentence production time* for Kon (Expert) and Jess (Intermediate)N.B. Jess produced Passive 6 times with Agent cue and 4 times with Patient cue (total 10 times).*as measured with ‘Audacity’Summary of Passive sentences production time (measured with Audacity freeware)InformantMeanStd. DevMinimumMaximumKon (Expert)(N=15)Jess (intermediate)(N=10)
69Efficient, accurate and stable performance in language production requires training! Summing up, for language acquisition to occur it may not be enough for a structure to emerge in order to actually use that structure outside classroom-defined contexts and tasks. Practice in context, in turn, will give learners the opportunity to automatize further components of their production (Paradis 2004) which will, in turn, free up working memory capacity to attend to more semantic and discourse-pragmatic components of the message.
70(Cognition Hypothesis: Robinson 2005; 2007; 2011) One further step! (Ma 2014)Fish film task (-planning time, + few elements)DMDX picture description task (-planning time; -few elements)(Cognition Hypothesis: Robinson 2005; 2007; 2011)Time constrained picture description task
72To sum up…“if one can handle the phonology and syntax of a second language automatically, then more attention can be paid to processing semantic, pragmatic, and sociolinguistic levels of communication”. (Segalowitz, 2003)This would suggest that those learners who have not already automatized the articulatory, lexical and morpho-syntactic components required for processing passives may be unable to incorporate additional pragmatic cues in time-constrained speech.
736. Digital technologies & evaluation of language development using PT Kanda University of International Study23 first year English major Students25 second year students of Japanese L2University of Western Sydney4860km
74Advantages of chat over face-to-face communication in SLA Chat reduces the burden on Working Memory because of:(1) slower speed of information exchange (2 words/sec in normal speech, 3-4 second/content word in writing)(2) availability of previous messages (context) as visual representation.Therefore, the learner is able to utilise more attentional resources on L2 lexicon and forms while maintaining the same interactionPayne & Whitney, 2002
75Project structureTandem language learning via instant messaging between language classes in Japan and Australia.Tandem pairs were matched based on mutual interests.3 chat sessions (30min.English/ 30min. Japanese per session) distributed over two months .Bower & Kawaguchi, 2011
76Lexicon (Japanese L2) Evaluation Kawaguchi, in press Colin Iwan Daniel Leo ChrisLexicon (Japanese L2)Colin Iwan Daniel Lee ChrisKawaguchi, in press
77Morphological Development 1st session3rd session
79Result summary(a) development of L2 text chat follows PT developmental stages. (b) there are vast individual differences in students’ learning outcomes.This justifies close monitoring to promote overall linguistic development e.g. by using a reliable developmental measure such as PT.There is a great potential for on-line PT Rapid Profile to play a role in monitoring L2 development with CALL (esp. text messaging) by learners themselves or teachers.
807. Concluding remarksA PT perspective is shown to be useful for promoting successful second language learning and teaching, e.g., syllabus design.Promoting language skills are important to automatize higher structures in language use.PT stages are a useful tool to monitor learners’ language development in various communicative activities.
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86Cognitive Strategies (Clahsen 1984) see L-F&L (1991) p. 273 Stage/ Possible ControllingGSL order permutation StrategiesSVO [W X Y Z] +COS +SCSCanonical orderADV [W X Y Z] +IFS+COS +SCSInitializ./ (add one constraint)FinalizationVerb SEP [W X Y Z] -COS +IFS+SCSDisruption of CO (shed one constraint)& movement tosalient positionINVERSION [W X Y Z] -IFS -COS +SCSDisruption of CO (shed one more constraint)Internal movementV-END [W X Y Z] -IFS -COS - SCSSub-categorization (shed one more constraint)(recognition of internalCateg. & substrings) [A B C]