Presentation on theme: "Adolescent Substance Abuse: What Middle School Parents Need to Know March 10, 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Adolescent Substance Abuse: What Middle School Parents Need to Know March 10, 2014
Introduction Student Assistance Counselor Groups and individual counseling for issues related to substance abuse – family members, friends, themselves Decision making, anxiety, anger management, relationships, communication skills – learning effective strategies to manage these issues helps to prevent substance abuse Students who violate the drug and alcohol policy Parents – resources, referral, support and education Confidentiality Prevention Programs – Red Ribbon Week, Kick Butts Day, Peer Leaders, activities involving healthy decision making and Asset building. Parent workshops - Active Parenting, Breakfast Club, Dinner Club
Gateway Drugs Alcohol, tobacco/nicotine products, marijuana, inhalants, over-the-counter and prescription drugs. Electronic cigarettes, synthetic marijuana and energy drinks Easily available from home, friends, older siblings Why do we need to take use of these substances seriously? May move on to harder drugs They have their own serious risks Teen brains are still developing – long term damage Impact decision making Possibly trigger underlying emotional & psychiatric issues Prohibits emotional growth – ‘numbing’
Gateway Drugs (continued) Why use? o Self-medicate o Stress o Fit in o Of those who use, most don’t know why they use o Most adolescents do not use
Alcohol 30% of 8 th graders; 54% of 10 th graders; 69% of 12 th graders report having used alcohol (www.monitoringthefuture.org)www.monitoringthefuture.org 13% of 8th graders; 35% of 10th graders; and 54% of 12th graders said they have been drunk at least once in their lifetime. (www.monitoringthefuture.org)www.monitoringthefuture.org
Alcohol (continued) Risks: Lowers inhibition which can lead to reckless behavior Inhibits judgment Impacts brain development Illegal under 21 Intensify depression Binge drinking can lead to alcohol poisoning and death Addictive
Tobacco 16% of 8 th graders; 28% of 10 th graders; 40% of 12 graders report having used tobacco (www.monitoringthefuture.org)www.monitoringthefuture.org Tobacco products most used: 1.cigarettes 2.cigars 3. electronic cigarettes (National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) 2012 (in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, No. 15, 2013)
Tobacco (continued) Risks: Nicotine addictive Cancer Lung diseases Using substance to relax instead of healthy strategies?
Electronic Cigarettes 2.7% of middle school students report having used an electronic cigarette (www.cdc.gov) Looks like cigarettes, pipes, cigars, pens, or flash drives Cartridges filled with nicotine, flavors and other chemicals, turn nicotine and other chemicals into a vapor which is inhaled (vaping) No age restrictions (some states) and available on the internet Marketed to teens – flavors chocolate, strawberry Teens (and adults) believe it’s safe
Electronic Cigarettes (continued) Risks: Nicotine is addicting Often use much more nicotine than a cigarette Users may expose themselves to potentially toxic levels of nicotine when refilling the cartridges. Cartridges could also be filled with substances other than nicotine, thus possibly serving as a new and potentially dangerous way to deliver other drugs Vapor has been shown to have toxic chemicals (chemical used in anti-freeze) Not overseen by FDA therefore ingredients are not regulated (http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/electronic- cigarettes-e-cigarettes(http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/electronic- cigarettes-e-cigarettes)
Marijuana 15% of 8 th graders; 34% of 10 th graders; 45% of 12 th graders report use ( Risks: Mind altering May trigger underlying psychiatric/emotional issues Chronic users: Negative impact on learning and memory Study indicated that people who began smoking marijuana heavily in their teens lost as much as 8 points in IQ between 13yrs and 38yrs and the lost cognitive abilities were not restored when they stopped using as adults Increase risk of heart attacks (marijuana affects heart rate, and rhythms causing palpations and arrhythmias) Respiratory problems Some adolescents have exhibited depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation Lack of motivation (http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana(http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana)
Synthetic Marijuana Sold under many names, including Spice, K2, Fake Weed, Yucatan Fire, Skunk, Moon Rocks, and others Labeled "not for human consumption" — these products contain dried, shredded plant material and chemical additives that are responsible for their psychoactive (mind-altering) effects Supposed to produce experiences similar to marijuana Illegal – but chemicals changed regularly (www.monitoringthefuture.org)www.monitoringthefuture.org
Synthetic Marijuana (continued) Risks: rapid heart rate vomiting agitation confusion and hallucinations elevated blood pressure reduced blood supply to the heart and heart attacks.
Inhalants 12% of 8 th graders; 10% of 10 th graders; 7.9% of 12 graders report use ( Common substances found at home and work: ◦Glue, markers, spray aerosols, paint, gasoline Inhale through the nose or mouth (huffing)
Inhalants (continued) Risks: Most abused inhalants depress the central nervous system (like alcohol) and cause slurred speech, lack of coordination, euphoria, dizziness, drowsy and headache. May feel less inhibited High doesn’t last long so they keep inhaling Short term risks: ◦nausea, vomiting, death – heart failure, suffocation Long Term risks: ◦liver and kidney damage, brain damage, neurological problems
Over-the-Counter and Prescription Drugs Prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are, after marijuana and alcohol, the most commonly abused substances by Americans 14 and older (http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/prescription-over- counter-medications)http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/prescription-over- counter-medications The classes of prescription drugs most commonly abused are: opioid pain relievers, such as Vicodin or Oxycontin; stimulants for treating ADHD, such as Adderall, Concerta, or Ritalin; and central nervous system depressants for relieving anxiety, such as Valium or Xanax The most commonly abused OTC drugs are cough and cold remedies containing dextromethorphan Easily available – friends, family, medicine cabinets
Over-the-Counter and Prescription Drugs (con’t) Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in Prevalence of Various Drugs for 8th-Graders, 10th-Graders, and 12th-Graders; 2013 (in percent)* DrugTime Period8th-Graders10th-Graders12th-Graders Any Prescription DrugPast Year AmphetaminePast Year AdderallPast Year RitalinPast Year Narcotics other than HeroinPast Year--7.1 VicodinPast Year1.44.6[5.3] OxyContinPast Year TranquilizersPast Year
Over-the-Counter and Prescription Drugs (con’t) Risks: Teens often think that prescription and OTC drugs are safer than illicit drugs When abused, prescription and OTC drugs can be addictive and put abusers at risk for other adverse health effects, including overdose—especially when taken along with other drugs or alcohol Poor decisions and risky behavior
Energy Drinks Monster, Red Bull, Rockstar Energy drinks contain high amounts of caffeine, and usually include vitamins, herbal supplements, sugars and guarana (a plant product containing concentrated caffeine). Some of these additives may increase the stimulant effect of the caffeine (SAMHSA Drug Abuse Warning Network Report, January 10, 2013) Amount of caffeine in a bottle or can varies from 80 milligrams to more than 500 milligrams. A 5oz. cup of coffee has 100 mg and a 12 oz. can of soda has 50 mg (SAMHSA Drug Abuse Warning Network Report, January 10, 2013) Energy shots (‘5 Hour Energy’) are more concentrated forms of energy drinks 20,783 emergency room visits in 2011 were related to energy drinks (SAMHSA Drug Abuse Warning Network Report, January 10, 2013)
Energy Drinks (continued) Risks: Caffeine increases heart rate, blood pressure, speech rate, motor activity, attentiveness and body temperature. Trigger undetected heart problems? Mixed with alcohol: Caffeine is a stimulant. Alcohol is a depressant. When the two are mixed it does not make the person sober, it just makes them less aware of how drunk they are. This can result in ingesting more alcohol and risking alcohol poisoning. Energy drinks and alcohol both raise blood pressure and mixing both can be extremely dangerous to the heart. Before sports? Caffeine contributes to dehydration (University at Buffalo, Research Institute on Addictions, Fall 2011). Children are more sensitive to the health effects of caffeine (University at Buffalo, Research Institute on Addictions, Fall 2011). Caffeine is addicting.
Prevention Parents influence their teens Teens who believe their parents disapprove of underage drinking, smoking or drug use are much less likely to engage in these risky behaviors Talk to your teens! Let them know your values and beliefs Underage drinking and drug use is not a rite of passage Not every teen drinks or uses drugs Use current events, television, music to start the conversations Prevention involves substance abuse education and Asset building
Positive Parenting National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and Active Parenting: Communication Encouragement Effective Problem Solving Skills Setting Limits Supervision Know Your Child’s Friends
Communication Good communication is the foundation of strong family relationships catches problems early supports positive behavior know what is happening in their children’s lives Key steps: Give complete attention and if can’t, schedule a time to talk when you can. Be aware of non-verbal communication Listen Use I statements and reflections C ontrol your actions A ssess and decide if you are too upset to continue L eave the situation if you are too angry or upset M ake a plan to deal with the situation within 24 hours
Encouragement Consistent encouragement helps teens feel good about themselves and confidence to try new activities, tackle difficult tasks, develop new friendships and explore creativity Encouragement gives the messages: ◦You can do it (focus on their strengths and past successes, problem solving steps) ◦You have good ideas (involve them in family plans, encourage their opinions and feelings, family meetings) ◦You are important (remember what they have told you, make time for them, display their work and recognitions, letter of encouragement)
Encouragement (continued) Encouraging words: “I know that wasn’t easy” “Keep on trying” “I can tell that you’ve been practicing” Discouragement: Sarcastic Negative about teen’s ability to be successful Comparing to others Taking over for your child
Effective Problem Solving Skills Help teen learn the steps in effective problem solving through Active Communication(Active Parenting): 1. Listen Actively 2. Listen for feelings 3. Identify the problem (teen) 4. Explore alternatives/evaluate consequences (teen) 5. Offer encouragement 6. Follow up
Setting Limits Active Parenting – “freedom within limits” Limits expand as teen shows responsibility, effective decision making Set rules, expectations and consequences before situations arise Make sure teen is aware of rules and consequences. Helpful if they have input Follow through with consequences if rules are broken, provide encouragement when rules are followed Stay calm
Supervision Clear rules about friends, parties, house Communicate with other parents, teachers, school counselors Discuss family values about alcohol, tobacco and drug use
Know Your Child’s Friends Spend time getting to know their friends and parents Stay involved in your teen’s activities Talk to your child when you are concerned about their behavior or their friends’ behavior
Summary Keep talking to your teens! Keep talking to other parents! Stay informed! Don’t give in to peer pressure! Build Assets!
Resources Active Parenting of Teens, Leader’s Guide, 3 rd Edition, 2009 Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Abuse: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), September 6, 2013, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) 2012, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), November 15, 2013, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA): SAMHSA Drug Abuse Warning Network Report, January 10, 2013 University at Buffalo, Research Institute on Addictions, Fall 2011