2Narcotic Drugs Pharmacologically classified as an analgesic Central Nervous System DepressantsPopular drugs – heroin, morphine, codeine, methadone and propoxyphene
3Hallucinogens Marijuana Derived from the plant Cannabis Hashish – concentratedSinsemilla – unfertilized flowering tops of the female Cannabis plantActive ingredient is THCPotency is normally 4-5%Simsemilla averages 6-12%Liquid hashish averages 8-22%Potential medical uses
4HallucinogensLSD – derived from ergot, a fungus of certain grains and grassesPowerful drugVisual hallucinations, changes in moods, anxiety, tension, etcFlashbacks possiblePhencyclidine – PCPHuman response unpredictableDangerous drug – paranoia and violence possibleSchizophrenic behavior possible days after useMethylenedioxymethamphetamine (aka MDMA or ecstasy)Originally patented as appetite suppressantSevere adverse reactions, including fatal side effects
5Depressants Alcohol (aka ethanol, ethyl alcohol, booze, etc.) Central nervous system depressantLegalized and most widely used drugA common effect is impairmentLegal blood alcohol level in Oklahomais 0.10%, or 100 mg/dLBarbituratesAll are derivatives of barbituric acidBig 5: amobarbital, secobarbital, phenobarbital, pentobarbital and butalbitalMethaqualon. TranquilizersMajor players: reserpine, chlorpromazine, meprobamate, chlordiazepoxide, diazepamInhalantsVolatile organic solvents – toluene, naphtha, gasoline among othersInitial exhilaration and euphoria followed by impaired judgment, drowsiness and stuporDanger of liver, heart and brain damage
6Stimulants Amphetamines Initial feeling of well-being and alertness followed by fatigue and a loss of appetiteAmphetamine, methamphetamine and “ice” (crystal meth) are favoritesPhenmetrazine and phendimetrazine have similar propertiesCocaineFirst used medically by Freud in EuropeMedical use is now limitedExtracted from the leaves of coca plant (Erythroxylon coca)“Crack” cocaine is the drug of choiceCocaine produces the strongest psychological compulsions for continued use
7Drugs: Organized by Control Laws Federal law restricting the manufacture and distribution of dangerous substancesThe U.S. Attorney General has the authority to change the schedulesThe criminal penalties associated with this law are greatest with schedules I and II.
8Controlled Substances Act Schedule INo medical useHigh potential for abuseHeroin, LSD, methaqualone and marijuana High potential for abuseCocaine, opiates, PCP, amphetamines, methadone and fast-acting barbituratesSchedule IIAccepted medical usePotential for psychological or physical dependenceSchedule IIILess potential for abuse than schedules I and IICurrently accepted medical usePotential for low or moderate physical dependence or high psychological dependenceAnabolic steroids, some codeine preparations and some barbiturate preparations (phenobarbital not included)
9Controlled Substances Act Schedule IVLow potential for abuse relative to schedule III drugsCurrently accepted medical useRelatively low limited dependence riskPropoxyphene, phenobarbital, meprobamate, diazepam and chlordiazepoxideSchedule VLow abuse potentialMedical useLess potential for producing dependencyCertain opiate drug mixtures that contain non-narcotic medicinal ingredientsDesigner drugsCan be placed under schedule IFentanyl analoguesControl of chemical precursorsExample – precursors to amphetamine, methamphetamine and PCP are controlled as schedule II substances
10Drugs: Organized by Chemistry Extraction, Separation and isolationLiquid-LiquidTLCHPLCCharacterizationColor tests - often termed presumptive testsMarquis – purple color in presence of opiates and orange-brown in presence of amphetaminesDillie-Koppanyi – violet-blue color in presence of barbituratesDuquenois-Levine – purple color in presence of marijuanaVan Urk – blue-purple color in presence of LSDScott – blue color in presence of cocaineUV and IR SpectroscopyGC-MS
11Note that the neutral classification includes thosedrugs that have no ionizable center and those which are amphotericAlkaloids are generally derived from plants ehile the nonalkaloids are syhtthetic or semisynthetic
24Problems; Bell page 1285. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has a of 3.5. The pH of the stomach is approximately 1, while the pH of the intestines is approximately 6. Calculate the fraction of aspirin that is ionized in each area (show your work), anduse the results to predict where the drug is preferentially absorbed.6. Repeat the calculation in Question 5 for caffeine, a weak base with a of 0.6.7. Diazepam tablets are supplied in 2-, 5-, and 10-mg increments. Suppose several tablets are received in a laboratory as evidence and, using the Physician’s DeskReference, an analyst was able to tentatively identify them as Valium®, 10 mg. Suppose further that you learn that the tablets also contain anhydrous lactose,starches, dyes, and calcium stearate. Describe a method for isolating the active ingredient from fillers, using a LLE scheme. Justify and explain each step ofthe method.8. Quinine is a dibasic molecule with of 5.1 and 9.7. It is encountered as a diluent (cutting agent) for heroin. To extract quinine from an aqueous solution, what pH should be used and why?9. Devise a solvent extraction method that could be used to separate a mixture of powdered sugar, cornstarch, cocaine, and amphetamine. Justify each step and separation.