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Introduction to Evidence-Based Inquiry

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Evidence-Based Inquiry"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Evidence-Based Inquiry
Guiding Principle of scientific, Evidence-Based Inquiry Definition of Research The Characteristics of Educational Research The Research process Quantitative and qualitative research approaches The Functions of research : basic, applied,evaluation,and action Limitations of educational research

2 Guiding Principle of scientific, Evidence-Based Inquiry
Evidence-based Inquiry is the search for knowledge using systematically gathered empirical data. A study is evidence based when investigators have anticipated the traditional questions that are pertinent and instituted techniques to avoids bias at each step of data collection and reasoning.

3 Guiding Principle of scientific, Evidence-Based Inquiry
Guide Principle 1: Pose significant question that can be investigated empirically: A question may be investigated to fill a gap in prior knowledge, to seek new knowledge, to identify the cause or causes of some phenomenon, or to formally test a hypothesis. A question may even be articulated at the end of a study, when the researcher has a better understanding of the phenomenon.

4 Guiding Principle of scientific, Evidence-Based Inquiry
Guiding Principle 2: Link research to a relevant theory or conceptual framework: Much of scientific inquiry is linked, either explicitly or implicitly, to some overarching theory or conceptual framework that guides the entire research process.

5 Guiding Principle of scientific, Evidence-Based Inquiry
Guiding Principle 2: Link Research to a relevant theory or conceptual Framework: Theory enters the research process in two important ways. First, scientific research is usually guided by a conceptual framework or theory that suggests possible questions or answers to questions posed. In a second, more subtle way, a conceptual framework influence the research process in the selection of what and how to observe (i,e., methodological choice)

6 Guiding Principle of scientific, Evidence-Based Inquiry
Guiding Principle 3:Use methods that allow direct investigation of the research question: A method can only be judged in terms of its appropriateness and effectiveness in undertaking a particular research question. Very different methodological approaches must often be used in different parts of a series of related studies. Guiding Principle 4. Provide a Coherent and explicit chain of reasoning: A logical chain of reasoning, which proceeds from evidence to conclusions, is coherent, shareable, and persuasive to the skeptical reader. Detailed descriptions of procedures and analyses are crucial.

7 Guiding Principle of scientific, Evidence-Based Inquiry
Guiding principle 5: Replicate/Generalize or Extend across Studies: Some quantitative research aims at replication and generalization. Generalization, in research, is the extent to which the results of one study can be used as knowledge about other populations and situations. The goal of most qualitative research, however, is to illuminate what is unique and to understand the particulars of a specific situation in all its complexity. A body of scientific knowledge is built through the logical extension of finding, rather than through the statistical generalization of such information.

8 Guiding Principle of scientific, Evidence-Based Inquiry
Guiding principle 6:Disclose research to encourage professional scrutiny and critique. Scientific research does not contribute to a large body of knowledge until its findings have been widely disseminated and undergone professional scrutiny by peers. A collaborative, public critique is a sign of the health of scientific inquiry.

9 Definition of Research
Research is the systematic process of collecting and logically analyzing data for some purpose. Research methods have been developed for acquiring knowledge by reliable and valid procedures . Data collection may be done with measurement techniques, extensive interviews and observations, or a set of documents.

10 Table characteristics of Educational Research
Characteristics Quantitative Qualitative Objectivity Explicit description of data Explicit description of data collection and analysis collection and analysis procedures procedures Precision Measurement and statistics Detailed description of phenomenon Verification Result replicated by others Extension of understandings by others Parsimonious Least complicated Summary statements explanation explanation preferred Empiricism Numerical date Narrative Logical reasoning Primarily deductive Primarily inductive Conditional Statements of statistical probability Tentative summary conclusions interpretation

11 The research process The research process typically in involves several phases. These phases are not always sequential nor are an orderly step-by-step process. 1.Select a general problem: The problem defines the area of education in which research will be conducted, such as instruction, administration.

12 The research process 2.Review the literature on the problem:
The most important literature is prior research and theory, but other literature may be useful. 3.Decide the specific research problem, question, or hypothesis: This requires the investigator to select whether a quantitative or qualitative mode of inquiry is appropriate for the research problem.

13 The research process 4.Determine the design and methodology:
The researcher decides form whom data will be collected, how the subjects will be selected, how data will be collected. 5.Collect data: Ethical and legal concerns regarding data collection and analysis must also be resolved.

14 The Research process 6.Analyze data and present the results:
Usually, summary visual representations are used, such as statistical table and integrative diagram. 7.Interpret the findings and state conclusions or a summary regarding the problem: Decision are made about the reporting format appropriate for the purpose of the study and the intended audience or readers. The research process may be relatively short, or it may take several years or longer.

15 Introduction of the quantitative and qualitative research approaches

16 Basic researches include:
1.assumptions about the world. 2.research purpose. 3.research methods and process. 4.prototypical study (clearest example). 5.researcher role. 6.importance of the context in the study.

17 For your reference, please look at your textbook page 8 ,table1-3.
Assumptions about the world:

18 The functions of research
Basic research Applied research Evaluation research Action research

19 Limitations of educational research
In the field of education, evidence-based educational research uses methodologies developed originally in the social sciences.

20 Limitations of educational research
Legal and ethical concerns. Public institutions. Program variability. Diversity. Complexity of research problems. Methodological difficulties.

21 Thank you for your listening.

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